Chemical Reactions with Hydrogen Question

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Following are the questions, the detailed content is in the attached word file. 1.) AIR QUALITY The graph below (A) shows air quality throughout a typical day in a city of two hundred thousand people in Saudi Arabia. It shows the concentrations of ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over a 24-hour day. JNO2 is the rate of loss of NO2 from the atmosphere. Time of day is in 24-hour notation (e.g. 7 is 7:00 am; 15 is 3:00 pm). Figure (B) shows NO2 concentrations over time in the United States from 1980 to 2018. a.) Why do NO (red) and NO2 (blue) show similar patterns (Figure A)? (2 pts) b.) Explain what controls the urban ozone concentration (green) in Figure A. (2 pts)c.) What would be different about these curves if it was raining all day? You can describe and/or draw the differences for comparison (3 pts)d.) Please explain the decreasing trend of NO2 concentrations in the US from 1980-2018 (Figure B). What led to the decrease in urban air pollution in the US over this time period? (3 pts) 2.) LOCAL RIVERSa.) Explain discharge data for Town Brook (Figure A). When is discharge high? When is it low? Why? Discharge is measured in volume per time (ft3/sec). (2 points) b.) Explain discharge data for Charles River (Figure B). When is discharge high? When is it low? Why? Discharge is measured in volume per time (ft3/sec). (2 points)c.) Compare Town Brook to the Charles River. What is similar? What is different? (2 pts)
d.) Compare the years 2019 and 2020. What is similar? What is different? (2 points) e.) Which one of these two watersheds appears to be more impermeable? What does this mean for the likelihood of flooding? Why? (2 points)3) NEPONSET RIVER WATERSHED
The Neponset River Watershed is about 340 km2 in area and includes parts of 14 cities and towns. a.) Is the Neponset River Watershed healthy? What measurements in Neponset River Estuary (at the mouth of the Neponset River) would imply that the Neponset River Watershed (the land) was healthy? Please describe 2 indicators (measurements) of estuarine health, and what sources/processes in the watershed lead them to have impacts on the estuary. (5 points)b.) How much is a clean, healthy Neponset River Watershed ecosystem worth (in dollars)? Explain how you determined this value. (5 points) c.) Please list three (3) ecosystem services that the Neponset River Watershed could provide you personally. Describe the circumstances (when, where) that you could benefit from these ecosystem services. (3 points)4.) COMPLEX SYSTEMS
Humans are increasing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. An emergent property of this complex system is an increase in global average temperatures. The climate system is a complex system characterized by thresholds and feedbacks loops. a.) Give three examples of thresholds or tipping points in environmental science. (3 points)b.) Please describe two positive feedback loops in the climate system. (2 points) c.) Please describe two negative feedback loops in the climate system. (2 points) d.) Why is there uncertainty in predicting how climate will change? (3 points)5.) SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMSWe have examined semi-enclosed ecosystems where mass is conserved inside the boundaries, and only energy (light, heat) is exchanged. a.) Do you think a goldfish could live in Biosphere 2 for five years? Explain your reasoning considering life span, and carbon, water, and energy needs. (2 points)b.) Do you think a bald eagle could live in Biosphere 2 for five years? Explain your reasoning considering life span, and carbon, water, and energy needs. (2 points)c.) Describe the water cycle within Biosphere 2. How did the Biospherians obtain clean drinking water? Please explain. (4 points)d.) Describe the energy balance in Biosphere 2. What were the energy inputs? What were the energy outputs? Were they balanced throughout the year? (4 points)6.) TINY HOMESA tiny house is a good example of a semi-closed system so you can keep track of what comes in and out. a.) Suppose you bring 50 pounds of groceries into your tiny house each week. Please estimate how many pounds of each type of waste leaves your tiny home each week. Does this add up to 50 pounds? Why or why not? Where do the various forms end up? (5 points)b.) If you install a low flow (1.8 gallon/min) showerhead instead of a regular (3.3 gallon/min) showerhead, how much water would you save for a 10-minute shower? (3 points)c.) Your gas company charges you for the amount of natural you use each month in therms. How much energy (in gallons of gasoline) do you use if you use 400 therms natural gas in a year? You can use the following website calculator to help you convert units, but please show your work. How far could you drive a car in month with the same energy? (2 points) http://www.onlineconversion.com/energy.htm7.) ENERGY SOURCES–SOLAR POWERBurning fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and petroleum emits CO2 which leads to climate change. There are alternative energy sources that lead to much lower emissions of CO2, but each have pros and cons. a.) How does an artificial leaf work? Where does the energy come from? What is the resulting form of energy? How is this stored? (4 points)b.) What are some of the benefits of using hydrogen fuel cells? What are some of the limitations? Be specific. (4 points)c.) What are some environmental advantages of using artificial leafs combined with fuel cells? (2 points)

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Name _______________________
ENVSCI 120
Final-Critical Thinking Part 2
Individual Part (75 points)
Due before the Final, Saturday, December 19, 2020, 11:30 am
You must use TurnItIn under Exams in Blackboard to submit this exam.
1) Make sure your NAME is your Title and in the document when you submit so your score
will be assigned to you. Also include your name at the top of your uploaded document.
2) Please delete the instructions, questions, and images from your document before you submit.
Only submit your responses to the questions. This will make your files smaller (more
manageable) and lower your similarity scores.
3) Upload a PDF file with your name in the title to Exams/Final in Blackboard (TurnItIn) before
11:30 am on December 19th.
4) You should keep a copy of your exam to use for your Group Work-Part 3.
Instructions:
A.) You may use any source of information except human resources (you are to complete Part I
of the exam without consulting any other person). Textbook, web sources (with the
exceptions below), library sources, etc. are fine. Place in quotes any words that are
directly from other sources including websites. You should attribute ideas, lists, and
paraphrased information to the source where you found them. You can cite your sources
in the text of your answer (e.g. Chen, 2017). Please list all complete sources that you
have used at the end of each question.
B.) You may NOT use any blogs, homework sites, tutor websites (e.g. www.chegg.com,etc.), or
social media where any person has posted an answer to an exam question. Use of these
sites is strictly prohibited and will result in disciplinary sanctions.
C.) Please type your responses. Please remove the exam questions before submitting to Turnitin.
This will reduce your similarity score. Feel free to write in figures, drawings, and
equations if necessary by hand. These do not need to be submitted to Turnitin.
D.) As a rule of thumb, you are not expected to spend more than 1.5 hours per question. This
means that you might spend ~1 hour researching the question and 30 minutes writing
your answers.
E.) Please provide detailed support for any of your statements or answers. In other words, a
simple “yes” or “no”, “agree” or “disagree”, or “I think it is clean”, is not a complete
answer and will not receive credit. A complete answer takes the form of “Yes, because
… and therefore…” or “I think it is clean because …. “.
F.) You will be graded on your ability to think and write critically in addressing these
environmental issues. Simply writing facts that you find on the internet is not enough.
More detailed, supportive responses will be more valued than generalizations.
Once you have completed the exam,
Please sign the following statement: “I have not consulted any other person in completing this
INDIVIDUAL Part I of the exam”:
1
___________________________
For information purposes only (this will not affect your grade), how much time (hours) did you
spend on this exam?
______________
2
1.) AIR QUALITY
The graph below (A) shows air quality throughout a typical day in a city of two hundred thousand
people in Saudi Arabia. It shows the concentrations of ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen
dioxide (NO2) over a 24-hour day. JNO2 is the rate of loss of NO2 from the atmosphere. Time of
day is in 24-hour notation (e.g. 7 is 7:00 am; 15 is 3:00 pm). Figure (B) shows NO2 concentrations
over time in the United States from 1980 to 2018.
A)
B)
a.) Why do NO (red) and NO2 (blue) show similar patterns (Figure A)? (2 pts)
b.) Explain what controls the urban ozone concentration (green) in Figure A. (2 pts)
c.) What would be different about these curves if it was raining all day? You can describe
and/or draw the differences for comparison (3 pts)
d.) Please explain the decreasing trend of NO2 concentrations in the US from 1980-2018
(Figure B). What led to the decrease in urban air pollution in the US over this time
period? (3 pts)
3
2.) LOCAL RIVERS
A
B
a.) Explain discharge data for Town Brook (Figure A). When is discharge high? When is it low?
Why? Discharge is measured in volume per time (ft3/sec). (2 points)
b.) Explain discharge data for Charles River (Figure B). When is discharge high? When is it low?
Why? Discharge is measured in volume per time (ft3/sec). (2 points)
c.) Compare Town Brook to the Charles River. What is similar? What is different? (2 pts)
d.) Compare the years 2019 and 2020. What is similar? What is different? (2 points)
e.) Which one of these two watersheds appears to be more impermeable? What does this mean
for the likelihood of flooding? Why? (2 points)
4
3.) NEPONSET RIVER WATERSHED
The Neponset River Watershed is about 340 km2 in area and includes parts of 14 cities and
towns.
a.) Is the Neponset River Watershed healthy? What measurements in Neponset River Estuary (at
the mouth of the Neponset River) would imply that the Neponset River Watershed (the
land) was healthy? Please describe 2 indicators (measurements) of estuarine health, and
what sources/processes in the watershed lead them to have impacts on the estuary. (5
points)
b.) How much is a clean, healthy Neponset River Watershed ecosystem worth (in dollars)?
Explain how you determined this value. (5 points)
c.) Please list three (3) ecosystem services that the Neponset River Watershed could provide you
personally. Describe the circumstances (when, where) that you could benefit from these
ecosystem services. (3 points)
5
4.) COMPLEX SYSTEMS
Humans are increasing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. An
emergent property of this complex system is an increase in global average temperatures.
The climate system is a complex system characterized by thresholds and feedbacks loops.
a.) Give three examples of thresholds or tipping points in environmental science. (3 points)
b.) Please describe two positive feedback loops in the climate system. (2 points)
c.) Please describe two negative feedback loops in the climate system. (2 points)
d.) Why is there uncertainty in predicting how climate will change? (3 points)
6
5.) SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS
We have examined semi-enclosed ecosystems where mass is conserved inside the boundaries,
and only energy (light, heat) is exchanged.
a.) Do you think a goldfish could live in Biosphere 2 for five years? Explain your reasoning
considering life span, and carbon, water, and energy needs. (2 points)
b.) Do you think a bald eagle could live in Biosphere 2 for five years? Explain your reasoning
considering life span, and carbon, water, and energy needs. (2 points)
c.) Describe the water cycle within Biosphere 2. How did the Biospherians obtain clean drinking
water? Please explain. (4 points)
d.) Describe the energy balance in Biosphere 2. What were the energy inputs? What were the
energy outputs? Were they balanced throughout the year? (4 points)
7
6.) TINY HOMES
A tiny house is a good example of a semi-closed system so you can keep track of what comes in
and out.
a.) Suppose you bring 50 pounds of groceries into your tiny house each week. Please estimate
how many pounds of each type of waste leaves your tiny home each week. Does this add
up to 50 pounds? Why or why not? Where do the various forms end up? (5 points)
b.) If you install a low flow (1.8 gallon/min) showerhead instead of a regular (3.3 gallon/min)
showerhead, how much water would you save for a 10-minute shower? (3 points)
c.) Your gas company charges you for the amount of natural you use each month in therms.
How much energy (in gallons of gasoline) do you use if you use 400 therms natural gas
in a year? You can use the following website calculator to help you convert units, but
please show your work. How far could you drive a car in month with the same energy?
(2 points)
http://www.onlineconversion.com/energy.htm
8
7.) ENERGY SOURCES–SOLAR POWER
Burning fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and petroleum emits CO2 which leads to climate
change. There are alternative energy sources that lead to much lower emissions of CO2,
but each have pros and cons.
a.) How does an artificial leaf work? Where does the energy come from? What is the resulting
form of energy? How is this stored? (4 points)
b.) What are some of the benefits of using hydrogen fuel cells? What are some of the
limitations? Be specific. (4 points)
c.) What are some environmental advantages of using artificial leafs combined with fuel cells?
(2 points)
9

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Tags:
chemical reactions

concentration of ozone

Production of Nitrogen oxides

oxidation of organic compunds

Pollutants in solutions

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