# CSU Advanced Concepts in Environmental Safety Management Research Paper

Description

The executives at Acme Manufacturing Co. were impressed by your first report, and they have asked you and BSCI to return for more work. BSCI has been contracted by Acme Manufacturing Co. to conduct a study to determine employee exposures to radiation. In addition, your company has been contracted to determine the effectiveness of engineering controls, including shielding. After conducting a field assessment, prepare a written report for Bob Sanders (CSP) to present to the Board of Directors. During your field investigation, you find the following field observations:

Test Equipment and Repair Facility

The company has an on-site test equipment and repair facility. Much of the test equipment contains a radiation source. Normal practice inside the facility is to limit the time of exposure of employees working on this equipment as a method of control. However, the company is looking at the possibility of installing lead shields or increasing the distance from the source, thus increasing employee time working on equipment. Based on the following information determine the employee’s exposure:

LocationEmployeeDistance (Initial)Distance (Proposed)Intensity (Initial)Intensity at proposed distanceBench #3Rita Ray D’Ashun0.5 ft.2 ft.110 mrem/hUnknownBench #5Robert Long1 ft.3 ft.137 mrem/hUnknownBench #6Paul Row0.75 ft.1.5 ft.102 mrem/hUnknown

Based on this information, determine the employee’s actual exposure rate to the radiation source. Show your work (either in the report or as an appendix).

The second option under consideration is to install lead shields in order to reduce the employee’s dose rate. Using the information provided in the table above, determine the intensity at the same distances listed above if a 5 cm lead shield was placed between the source and the detector. [µ for lead, (662 keV gamma ray) = 1.23 cm-¹]

As part of your assessment, you have been asked to evaluate the estimated power density levels for both near and far fields. When there is no gain listed in the problem, always defer to a gain of 10. Recall that 1 watt = 1,000,000 µW(microwatts). You have conducted your assessment and measurements with the following data:

LocationDiameter (cm)Antenna Power (watts)Distance (r) from Antenna (cm) Power Density (Near Field) (µW/cm²)Power Density (Far Field) (µW/cm²)Radar Unit #148 in50,000150 ft.Radar Unit #226 cm110,000150 ft.

Laser Laboratory

Acme Manufacturing is currently considering constructing a laser laboratory, which will contain Class III, IIIA, and IIIB lasers. Identify the safety control measures that the client must consider before proceeding to the design phase of the project.

Respond to the details in each section, and format your report in APA style. Include at least each of the following in your report for this unit: §Introduction-briefly describe why the studies were performed (why you started the study).§Report details-briefly discuss the details of the scenario (what you found from the study).§Conclusions and recommendations-briefly describe your recommendations based on your findings (what you recommend to resolve any deficiencies).§Appendix-Measurements and calculations (show your work).§At least one page (double-spaced) in length (not including the reference page and appendices).Prepare your report in a word-processing application (i.e., Word) using APA formatting for all references and in-text citations.

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UNIT III PROJECT
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Unit III Project
By
Student #
Columbia Southern University
01/19/2020
UNIT III PROJECT
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Abstract
This investigation was contracted to BSCI to in response to the first report conducted for Acme
Manufacturing. Now the company is asking to report on the employee’s exposure to radiation.
The information within this report is designed to assist Acme Manufacturing to make an
informed decision on the efficiency and shielding of engineering controls. This report is drafted
to assist in reducing Acme Manufacturing’s employee’s overall exposure to radiation working in
the test equipment and repair facility, the radar testing facility, and for future construction of a
laser laboratory.
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This safety report was conducted for Acme Manufacturing’s request to determine what
their radiation exposure is among their employees. This report includes radiation measurements
taken from two facilities responsible for employee exposure; the test equipment and repair
facility and the radar facility. BSCI will make recommendations based on the findings of the
calculation taken in each of the mentioned areas and for the proposed laser laboratory that Acme
Manufacturing Company wants to install.
Test Equipment and Repair Facility
To find out if installing lead shields is beneficial or increasing the distance from the
source would increase the time allowed for employees to work on the equipment consistently.
The report shows in the chart below that two different options where measured. The first option
measures the exposure to radiation that occurs while working at benches 3, 5, and 6, with the
workers performing their duties farther from the source of radiation. The second was to maintain
the workers in service and to build a lead-proofing wall for each workspace, which is intended to
give staff more development time at lower exposure levels. The purpose of this is to increase
production time for employees at reduced exposure rates.
Location Employee
Distance Distance Intensity
(Initial) (Proposed) (Initial)
Intensity
Intensity at a
After
proposed
Shielding
distance
(Initial)
Bench 3 Rita Ray D’Ashun 0.5 ft.
2 ft.
110 mrem/h
6.875 mrem/h 0.22 mrem/h
Bench 5 Robert Long
1 ft.
3 ft.
137 mrem/h
15.222 mrem/h 0.274 mrem/h
Bench 6 Paul Row
0.75 ft. 1.5 ft.
102 mrem/h
0.25 mrem/h
0.204 mrem/h
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The inverse square law gives us: I = k/d2, where I is radiation intensity, d is distance from the
source, and k is a constant. Then relate the intensity at the initial distance d1 to the proposed
distance d2. So, I1/I2 = (k/d12)/(k/d22) = d22/d12 making I2 = I1(d12/d22). By plugging in
values from the table for each employee would look like:
Rita
Intensity at proposed distance is I2 = 110 mrem/h ((0.5m)2 / (2m)2) = 6.875 mrem/h or {I2 =
110 mrem/h x (0.5ft)^2/(2 ft)^2}{I2 = 110 mrem/h x 0.25/4}I2 = 6.875 mrem/h.
Intensity after shielding is I = {(110 mrem/h)e^(-1.23*5)}{(110 mrem/h)(0.002)} = 0.22
mrem/h.
Robert
Intensity at a proposed distance is I2 = 137mrem/h ((1m)2 / (3m)2) = 15.22mrem/h or {I2 = 137
mrem/ h x (1 ft)^2/(3 ft)^2}{I2 = 137 mrem/h x 1/9 }I2 = 15.222 mrem/h.
Intensity after shielding is I = {(137 mrem/h)e^(-1.23*5)}{(137 mrem/h)(0.002)} = 0.274
mrem/h.
Paul:
Intensity at a proposed distance is I2 = 102mrem/h ((0.75m)2 / (1.5m)2) = 25.5mrem/h or {I2 =
102 mrem/h x (0.75 ft)^2/(1.5 ft)^2}{I2 = 102 mrem/h x 0.5625/2.25}I2 = 0.25 mrem/h.
Intensity after shielding is I = {(102 mrem/h)e^(-1.23*5)}{(102 mrem/h)(0.002)} = 0.204
mrem/h.
Acme Manufacturing has a radar testing facility that provides a place of work in the near
and far areas of different radar testing. These boundaries are known as fields near and far, due to
their locations from the antenna. Electrical engineers have defined the boundary regions of
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electromagnetic fields as a function of distance from the radiating source (Yates, 2015). With this
in mind, here are the results of calculating the power density for these two fields.
Location
Power Density
Diameter Antenna Power Distance (r) from
(Near Field)
(cm)
(watts)
Antenna (cm)
(µW/cm²)
Power Density
(Far Field)
(µW/cm²)
#1
121.92
cm
50,000
150 ft.
17,139,984.74
μW/cm2
1,906.11 μW/cm2
#2
26 cm
110,000
150 ft.
829,156.14 μW/cm2 4,193.44 μW/cm2
The PD =4πR2PG gives the expression for power density at far-field, Here, P = Antenna power,
G = gain of the antenna, R = Distance to the point of interest. Whereas PD =A4EP gives the
expression for power density at the near field, Here, P = Antenna power, E = efficiency of the
antenna, A = effective area of the antenna
Diameter (cm) is 48 in x 2.54 cm = 121.92 cm.
Antenna Power (watts) is 50,000 x 1000 mW = 50,000,000 mW.
Power Density for the near filed is 3.14×(60.96cm)24×1×5×104W = 17,139,984.74 μW/cm2.
Power Density at far field is 4×3.14×(45.7×102)2cm25×104W×10 = 1,906.11μW/cm2.
Antenna Power (watts) is 110,000 x 1000 mW = 110,000,000 mW.
Power Density for the near filed is 3.14×(13cm)24×1×11×104W = 829156140 μW/cm2.
Power Density for the far filed is 4×3.14×(45.7×102cm)211×104W×10 = 4193.44 μW/cm2.
Laser Laboratory
According to Chapter 26 of the Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide, Acme
Manufacturing Company must consider six general control measures before the design phase of
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their laser laboratory. These are shielding to reflect radiation, shielding to absorb radiation,
exposure, and utilize less hazardous radiation should be included (Yates, 2015). Each of the six
necessary control measures should be built-in designs for Acme’s new facility to protect its
employees and gain the most out of the bottom line.
Conclusions and Recommendations
As for safety consultant for Be Safe Consulting, Inc. I advise Acme Manufacturing
should immediately install lead shielding in the repair and testing facility to reduce current
overexposure to radiation. The shields will drastically reduce the exposure rates without moving
and workbenches away from the sources. Employees should be working two wavelengths away
minimum in the far-field to reduce the radar’s intensity in which workers are exposed. Finally,
with keeping safety in mind, I recommend Acme Manufacturing abides by all six of the control
measures when dealing with class I-IV lasers to ensure that all radiation exposure is kept to a
minimum. The executives at Acme Manufacturing is on the right track for keeping all employees
safe.
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References
Yates, W. D. (2015). Safety Professional’s Reference & Study Guide (2nd ed). Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.

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