ENSS 141P UW Environmental Protection Process Safety And Industry Discussion Ques


All the instructions will be on the word filePlease answer each of the following questions completely with well-formed sentences and paragraphs. Demonstration of your knowledge and synthesis of course content will comprise approximately 85% of your grade. Writing organization and mechanics will account for the remaining 15% of your grade.

1 attachmentsSlide 1 of 1attachment_1attachment_1

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Exam 3
Introduction to Environmental Science and Studies, ENSS141P
As noted in class, Exam 3 is a take home essay examination. Please answer each of the following
questions completely with well-formed sentences and paragraphs. Demonstration of your
knowledge and synthesis of course content will comprise approximately 85% of your grade.
Writing organization and mechanics will account for the remaining 15% of your grade.
You are free to use your notes, your book, lecture slides from BlackBoard, and other materials
when developing your answers. However, all writing must be ORIGINAL and IN YOUR OWN
WORDS. It is not acceptable to copy words directly from the book, lecture slides, or any outside
I also ask that you not work with other students on this exam. That said, I am not naïve, and so I
know that it is impossible to monitor and enforce this “honor system” request. But please know
in advance that I am highly skilled at detecting similarity in text among different students. In
other words, your writing MUST BE YOUR OWN.
Finally, it is fine and, in fact, encouraged for you to use the Writing Center as a resource for
assistance in polishing up your writing for this exam.
1) The original U.S. Clean Air Act (1970) established federal and state regulations for reducing
six “criteria air pollutants:” 1) Nitrous oxides (NOx); 2) Sulfur dioxide (SO2); 3) Carbon
monoxide (CO); 4) Ozone (O3); 5) Particulate matter (PM); and 6) Lead (Pb). Describe the
primary anthropogenic sources for each of these pollutants and also describe the particular
environmental and public health concerns associated with each of these pollutants. Given that
there are many other kinds of air pollutants, why did the United States government choose
these specific pollutants for aggressive regulatory action? Why does the “Kuznet’s curve”
relationship imply that most, if not all, countries will adopt and, even more importantly,
enforce similar types of air quality regulations as originally established by the U.S. Clean Air
Act? In other words, why does the Kuznet’s curve make it fairly predictable that a
developing country like China would eventually start adopting (and enforcing) aggressive air
quality regulations, as it has indeed started doing in recent years? (25 points)
2) Ozone (O3) is an interesting gas that figures prominently in discussions of atmospheric air
pollution. Expanding on your answer for Question 1 above, give a detailed description as to
how tropospheric ozone forms and also describe three environmental/public health problems
associated with high levels of tropospheric ozone. Next, discuss the basic chemical process
by which the emission of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the stratosphere resulted in the
production of what came to be known as the “ozone hole.” Describe why stratospheric ozone
is crucial for maintaining life on earth (at least as we currently know it), and why this
scientific consensus about the importance of ozone proved crucial in the international
ratification of the Montreal Protocol. Finally, how does the ozone hole relate to global
warming and climate change? (25 points)
3) Define and explain the relationships between the “greenhouse effect,” “global warming”, and
“climate change.” Briefly describe the historical development of the scientific theory of
anthropogenic global warming and climate change, including key contributions made by
Fourier (circa 1824), Foote (circa 1856), Tyndall (circa 1859), Arrhenius (circa 1896),
Callendar (circa 1938), Keeling (1958), Hansen (1988), and Mann (1998). Why does the very
clear evidence of “natural” climate change, as associated with phenomena like earth’s orbital
oscillations (Milankovitch cycles) and variations in solar output, not provide a valid reason
for dismissing large bodies of scientific evidence indicating that contemporary climate
change is mostly being driven by greenhouse gases emitted by modern human society? Why
are ice cores such an important tool for understanding past climate change and informing
projections of future climate change? (35 points)
4) What are the two primary reasons that contemporary climate change is causing sea level rise?
Describe why it may seem like the sea is rising faster in some places as compared to others
and, in fact, may even look like it is fall in certain places. Although the sea has “only” risen
about 7-9 inches (18-23 cm) over the past 100 years, why does our understanding of past sealevel changes raise concerns that sea-level rise could potentially accelerate quite rapidly over
the next few decades? How is sea-level rise already impacting Florida? Discuss at least two
major concerns associated with accelerating sea-level rise on coastal communities. (15
5) Net present value (NPV) is a tool used by economists to “discount” future monetary values.
It is based on the very intuitive principle that having something of value today is worth more
than receiving that same thing sometime later in the future. For example, if given the choice
of receiving $100 today or $100 one year from now, almost everyone (and everyone who is
rational!) would choose to receive $100 today. As discussed on our last day of class, the
concept of discounting is used extensively within environmental policy, especially in terms
of cost-benefit assessments. At the same time, many environmental activists and, indeed,
policy-oriented environmental scientists are troubled by the use of discounting for certain
kinds of ecosystem services.
For this last question, first describe what is meant by “sustainability” and “sustainable
development.” In particular, what kinds of moral obligations does sustainability impose on
present people for the sake of future generations? Describe why the concept of assigning
monetary value to ecosystem services is viewed by many environmental policy-makers as an
important tool for promoting sustainable development and conserving natural resources for
the benefit of present and future generations. Conversely, discuss why use of net present
value for ecosystem services could be problematic for future generations, especially when
evaluating the value of ecosystem services that are irreplaceable (for example, loss of an
endangered species) or non-substitutable (for example, having a generally stable climate
system or, more dramatically, having oxygen to breathe). In your view, what is the proper
role of environmental scientists, who are professionally obligated to follow the scientific
method, within the societal discussion of such moral and policy dilemmas? (25 points)

Purchase answer to see full

air pollution

water resources

green revolution

arithmetic ratio

soil contaminant

User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool’s honor code & terms of service.

Reviews, comments, and love from our customers and community:

This page is having a slideshow that uses Javascript. Your browser either doesn't support Javascript or you have it turned off. To see this page as it is meant to appear please use a Javascript enabled browser.

Peter M.
Peter M.
So far so good! It's safe and legit. My paper was finished on time...very excited!
Sean O.N.
Sean O.N.
Experience was easy, prompt and timely. Awesome first experience with a site like this. Worked out well.Thank you.
Angela M.J.
Angela M.J.
Good easy. I like the bidding because you can choose the writer and read reviews from other students
Lee Y.
Lee Y.
My writer had to change some ideas that she misunderstood. She was really nice and kind.
Kelvin J.
Kelvin J.
I have used other writing websites and this by far as been way better thus far! =)
Antony B.
Antony B.
I received an, "A". Definitely will reach out to her again and I highly recommend her. Thank you very much.
Khadija P.
Khadija P.
I have been searching for a custom book report help services for a while, and finally, I found the best of the best.
Regina Smith
Regina Smith
So amazed at how quickly they did my work!! very happy♥.