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Kexin Shang
Geog-G 427
Zlotin Roman
Russia and Its Neighbors
Question 1
Moscow Region
Aside from its part as the major local business and social focus, the city of Moscow
gloats an assorted arrangement of endeavors in different industry divisions, including designing,
metalworking, building materials, and resistance. The commercial enterprises by and large
depend on more on the city’s talented work power than on crude materials. Building segment has
practical experience in metal balls, machine devices, especially in crushing machines, exactness
cutting devices, and material industry hardware, aviation outline and measuring instruments,
including watches (Duckett, 2011). Substance industry, beforehand arranged at delivering
dyestuffs for the material industry, for example, common fiber and engineered fabric, now makes
manufactured modern rubbers and elastic tires, paints, plastics, pharmaceutical merchandise, and
scents, for the most part, got from Moscow’s oil refinery handling petroleum of the Volga-Urals
oil field.
Administrations, particularly managing an account, fund and information transfers, are
turning out to be progressively essential every year, as oil wealth continue filling Russian
economy. It is likewise important to take note of the part of Moscow as an imperative
transportation center point. In addition, the territory has truly been an R&D focus, regardless of
the endeavors to make supposed scholastic towns in remote parts of the nation amid the Soviet
times. Right now, 20% of every single logical association in Russia is arranged in Moscow
Region (Mezhevich, 2014). The district incorporates two uncommon financial zones for
innovation research – Dubna and Zelenograd.
A curious component of Moscow’s economy is that in spite of the fact that a lopsided
offer of national riches was concentrated there under the Soviets, the level of fixation has
fundamentally expanded after 1990. The city has represented one-fourth of Russia’s riches by the
start of this thousand years, not contemplating unreported exchanges (Ospian, 2013). Normal
compensation is much higher in Moscow than in different locales, yet pay rates constitute just a
quarter of city inhabitants’ profit, contrasted with three-fifths for all Russians, who infer a huge
offer of their wage from business enterprise and property leasing: land costs in Moscow are high.
Western Siberia
West Siberian monetary district, one of twelve financial areas of Russia, contains Altai
Territory, Altai Republic, Kemerovo Region, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, Novosibirsk
Region, Omsk Region, Tomsk Region, Tyumen Region and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area.
Along these lines, financial conditions shift significantly over the area. The economy of Altai
Republic depends on agribusiness, for example, far off field animals rising, rearing stallions,
deer and wool goats, and in addition honey bee keeping. Concerning Altai Territory, it has all
around created industry, for example, designing, metalworking, and chemicals: the area produces
1/6 of all tractors in Russia, 90% of the tractor furrows, around half of the generators, and all
railroad cargo autos (Duckett, 2011). In addition, the domain is Russia’s third-biggest grain and
drain maker and the fifth-biggest meat maker. Sunflowers, soybeans, and sugar beets are
developed too.
Farming is among the fundamental exercises in Novosibirsk Region, as well. Grains,
potatoes, vegetables, flax, milk, eggs, fleece, hamburger, pork, sheep, and poultry are created
there; steed rearing, beekeeping, and hide and fish cultivating are likewise critical exercises. As
Russia Profile advises, 80 percent of the mechanical capability of the oblast is packed in
Novosibirsk with handling commercial ventures giving 95% of the aggregate generation volume
(“Novosibirsk Region”). The city is the focal point of business action in West Siberia; the
Siberian Interbank Currency Exchange is situated there, together with various workplaces of
Russian and remote organizations (Engerman and Sokoloff, 2008). Commercial enterprises in
Novosibirsk Region incorporate machine-building and metallurgy, to be the specific creation of
electric generators for turbines, machines for metal-cutting, wood-handling and material
businesses, polymers, gadgets, plane parts, and chemicals.
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area is Russia’s primary oil and gas district and one of the
world’s biggest oil-delivering regions. Tyumen Region, which positions first in Russia as far as
modern yield, additionally depends intensely on oil and gas. Generation of milk, eggs, nursery
vegetables, angling and reindeer crowding are the most critical divisions of farming. It is obvious
that most West Siberian areas spend significant time in oil extraction and preparing, and the
same applies for Omsk Region where littler segments, also incorporate carpentry and timber
furthermore producing for protection. Tomsk Region has vast stores of iron and peat,
notwithstanding petrochemicals. From the deliberated studies, it is home to the Siberian
Chemical Complex, one of Russia’s biggest atomic industry ventures, that produces atomic
power and warming (Ospian, 2013). Four years back, the city of Tomsk was assigned as a unique
monetary zone for R&D. Concerning Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area, oil and gas represent
93% of its mechanical generation; no less than 90% of Russia’s regular gas and 12% of its oil are
created there. Kemerovo’s essential industry is coal mining – its Kuznetsk Coal Basin is among
the biggest on the planet. Designing and concoction businesses are additionally very much
created in Kemerovo.
The precarious financial decrease Ukraine endured after the breakdown of the USSR,
together with the loss of atomic deadly implements, theft of national riches and winning the
picture of a nation with non-market economy made a genuinely negative impression of Ukraine
among remote speculators. Remote financial specialists were attentive about entering the
business sector up until the late 1990s. Universal benefactors like the IMF and the World Bank
depended on stun treatment – quick privatization of state resources and deregulation of business
sectors – in managing the post-Soviet emergency. Redistribution of riches in the mid-1990s
offered ascended to a few oligarchs and left whatever remains of the populace in degraded
neediness. Individuals who were viewed as Soviet intelligence, for example, craftsmen and
researchers, endured the most, as the new government was not able to account science and
society (Duckett, 2011). Numerous very talented masters, and additionally youngsters, emigrated
to the U.S. what’s more, Europe amid the decade.
Before the breakdown of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was in charge of a quarter of USSR’s
GDP even under the least favorable conditions times. Different areas that were especially created
included metallurgy and mining. Regardless they shape the foundation of the nation’s economy,
yet different segments, for example, chemicals, materials, agribusiness, and administrations – are
turning out to be progressively imperative. Ukraine was among the nations hit the most by the
worldwide money related emergency (Engerman and Sokoloff, 2008). A quick fall in the cost of
its principle sends out, steel, combined with the shutdown of universal capital markets brought
on pain in both the keeping money area and genuine economy. The circumstance required an
advance from the IMF to balance out.
Quick monetary advancement of the nation began after it turned into a beneficiary of
financial help from the IMF and World Bank in 1995. Another help occurred after the
development of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, which gave livelihood chances to
numerous Georgians. Still, the dominant part of populace works in horticulture: it is the
fundamental area of the economy of the nation, contributing about 21% towards her GDP.
Different segments making the critical commitment towards the nation’s GDP incorporate
(Duckett, 2011) lodgings (17%), budgetary administrations (20%), correspondence (19%) and
development (33%). Changes in mining, development and saving money areas are important.
Georgia, by ethical news of being dependent on the inundation of outside capital, experienced
essentially the worldwide credit crunch. In September 2008, it went to the IMF for a crisis
advance planning to modify gross worldwide saves and support specialist financial certainty.
As Economy Watch advises, Kazakhstan has a considerable measure of monetarily
significant normal assets like fossil fuel saves and metals. Fundamental Kazakhstani fares
incorporate metals, hardware, oil, ferrous materials, chemicals and grain; GDP development is
8.5%. Administrations are the greatest part of the economy contributing 54.8%, trailed by
industry (39.4%) and farming (5.8%). Around 13.8% of the populace lives beneath destitution
line. Outside venture is of vital significance for the nation since it involves 30.3% of aggregate
GDP. Real fare destinations are China (15.6%) and Germany (11.5%) (Mezhevich, 2014).
Besides, the gigantic steppe lands show prime farming potential and South Kazakhstan is known
for its walnut and apple generation.
Question 17
All of the extensive northern shorelines of Russia are well over the Arctic Circle.
Besides, numerous islands likewise have a place with the Artic area; they are arranged in the
Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea. The
number of inhabitants in the locale is fundamentally contained indigenous tribes, for example,
Nenets, Saami, Komi, Enets, Chukchi, Chuvans, Koryaks, Eskimos, Aleuts, and others
(Engerman and Sokoloff, 2008). With the conditions as they are a ton of Russian settled there
before and amid the Soviet times to work at various ports and ocean army installations.
An improvement which is destined to deliver an overwhelming effect on both economy
and social fabric of Russian Arctic is the environmental change. Its belongings are as of now felt
in the area. Since a large portion of the indigenous tribes living there – a portion of the traveling
– rely on upon chasing, angling and reindeer crowding for their survival, a continuous increment
in temperatures might be exceptionally unsafe for their customary lifestyle. Tribes in Russian
Arctic relocate northwards in summer and southwards in winter; for some of them, it infers
crossing solidified waterways and lakes. Consistently individuals and their reindeer need to hold
up longer to begin their journey after the ice does not get sufficiently thick to cross. For reindeer,
it implies less accessible field (Ospian, 2013). It means that the area has to incorporate larger
frontiers to the developmental infrastructure as well as managed systems for prosperity to be
possible. The same can be applied to the adjacent areas with effective administration and
sufficient supplies of the necessities.
Nevertheless, this is not the most squeezing natural issue. The most unsafe result of
environmental change is dissolving permafrost, which builds the recurrence of avalanches and
discharges immense measure of methane into the climate. Presence of methane in the
environment is a serious indicator of the deteriorating atmospheric conditions, thus rendering the
area unsafe to human health as well as organic life’s dependence. On the off chance that the
pattern is to proceed with, the district can transform into and impervious marsh. Some
individuals trust “it may convey advantages to one of the world’s coldest nations, arranging for a
dissolving Arctic for oil and gas investigation, and expanding the nation’s brief developing
season. However, indigenous tribes are very much aware of the way that they are interconnected
with nature and subject to it for their survival and protection of their way of life and way of life.
Russian lawmakers are encouraged to give careful consideration to the issue: notwithstanding all
the aforementioned components, a vast piece of the railroad that crosses the district is based on
permafrost. Polar bears needed to relocate south from their common living spaces and now are
regularly seen establishing through trash in human settlements. In addition, indigenous people
groups of Artic used to store sustenance in the dirt in winters (Engerman and Sokoloff, 2008).
These days defrost regularly comes amidst winter and the meat can never again be safeguarded.
The tundra is no more a solid characteristic fridge.
Cold is a challenged zone amongst Russia and different nations, for example, Canada,
Denmark, Norway and the United States. This harvest time, the Russian government endorsed an
arrangement to make Arctic its primary asset base by 2020, given that environmental change has
considered oil penetrating in already blocked off regions. A railroad was opened in September to
serve Russia’s greatest gas field Bovanenkovo at the highest point of Yamal, a promontory in
Northwest Siberia] which will encourage the Nord Stream pipeline to Germany from 2012
(Mezhevich, 2014). The Same month, the Russian government proposed tax reductions to tempt
outside firms to penetrate the solidified mass of area, which has field stores of 16 trillion cubic
meters energetic to build up the area at the earliest opportunity. It was a significant step in trying
to curb any issues that were faced with the environmental concerns and need to improve on the
Another conceivable change connected with the hotter atmosphere is the retreat of North
Pole ice which makes it conceivable to explore Northern oceans without icebreakers: The
northern section could turn into an appealing, much shorter option for existing courses like the
one using the Suez Canal. Accordingly, it is conceivable to reason that environmental change
will deliver a genuine effect on Russian Arctic, albeit Russian researchers question that rising
temperatures ought to be credited to human movement and figure cooling of Arctic to happen
soon (Cimoli, Dosi and Stiglitz, 2009). Regardless, it creates the impression that the
investigation of the region will bring more drawbacks than advantages to numerous indigenous
tribes living there while oligarchs in Novosibirsk and Moscow cheer at new advancements. Some
of the publications and undertaken measures of investigation from Reuters reports that to date
remunerations for field corruption and area withdrawals had a tendency to be consumed by
neighborhood government and did not reach indigenous tribes (Duckett, 2011). The latter were
maligned in the process, thereby causing concern to the issues at hand as they faced. There
needed time and allocation to the systems in place to improve the well-being of the tribes.
Question 19
Ukraine pronounced its autonomy from the Soviet Union in 1991. The reason for that
was set up by the Patriot People’s Movement of Ukraine, Rukh, established in 1989. It was one
of the strengths behind the choice in 1991 in which 90% of Ukrainians voted for autonomy.
Since the breakdown of the Soviet Union, Russia-Ukraine relations experienced a few stages. At
in the first place, Russia valued trusts that the Union may be restored or supplanted with an
alternate yet firmly incorporated geopolitical course of action. Be that as it may, Ukraine saw its
future as an autonomous state. The significant clash in the 1990s was over Ukraine’s choice to
surrender its vital and strategic atomic weapons – world’s third biggest atomic meditations
stockpile by then. The West guaranteed to give security certifications to the ex-Soviet nation
consequently for demilitarization. In any case, as the relations amongst Ukraine and Russia kept
on soaring, the West was progressively seen as unwilling to shield Ukraine from its Eastern
Voices in Ukrainian remote strategy foundation contending demilitarization was a gross
error are especially solid now, after eighteen years. In the light of Russia’s war with Georgia in
2008, the progressing struggle over the Black Sea Armada, secessionism in Crimea, and yearly
gas lines, Ukraine’s geopolitical standing is extremely bargained and under risk from Russia.
Inspecting late improvements in Russia-Ukraine relations is most fitting in two unique angles, to
be specific political and financial. Russia is critical for Ukraine as an exchanging accomplice and
supplier of vitality assets. In the meantime, Russia depends on Ukraine for transporting its oil
and gas to Europe (Ospian, 2013). Truth be told, it is difficult to draw an unmistakable line
amongst governmental issues and financial aspects in Russia-Ukraine relations. The subject of
Russia is the most remarkable issue in Ukrainian governmental issues. It was the divisive line
amongst East and West amid the supposed Orange Revolution. President Viktor Yushchenko and
Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko are supportive of Westernization and mix into NATO and
conceivably the EU while Yanukovich’s Party of Regions holds a firm star Moscow position. He
and a few different government officials were upholding nearer ties with Russia and more free
position in the relations with the West.
In such a path, amid the Orange Revolution, Ukraine got the opportunity to be separated
into the individuals who upheld more profound coordination into worldwide foundations and the
individuals who trusted that such incorporation represented a threat to Ukraine’s national
advantages and broke even with interest in the worldwide procedures with surrendering to
Western dominion. Some individuals surmise that the denationalization of the inexistent isolate
between the Western Ukraine and Eastern Ukraine was counterfeit. Western Ukraine is
dominatingly Ukrainian-talking and Western-arranged while the East is populated by Russian
speakers willing to keep up solid social and political ties with Russia (Mezhevich, 2014). The
West voted for Yushchenko while the East voted for Yanukovych.
After the exceptionally challenged presidential decision in November 2004, it turned out
to be clear that the officeholder Leonid Kuchma’s administration fixed the races to the benefit of
his protégé and Moscow’s dear, Viktor Yanukovich. The restriction drove by Viktor Yushchenko
proclaimed that the decisions were stolen and called upon an across the country challenge. Some
protestors brought for assuming control administrative structures, similar to their partners did in
Georgia amid the rose unrest the year before that, yet Yushchenko decided out any activity that
may incite savagery. There was a sensible risk of secessionism. Whether to give Russian the
status of the second authority dialect remains hindrance in all political battles in Ukraine.
Four years after the Orange Revolution, the state of mind in Ukraine is, for the most part,
frustrated, as previous Orange associates, Viktor Yushchenko and Yulia Tymoshenko are
unendingly quibbling for force. Little of the genuine change, which had been so willingly
expected, really occurred. In September 2008, Yushchenko-Tymoshenko’s decision coalition
caved in over the President’s judgment of the Russia’s war with Georgia. Tymoshenko’s
gathering joined the restriction, Party of Regions, and affirmed enactment was constraining
presidential forces. For quite a long time, Tymoshenko has been a vocal supporter of antagonism
in the relations of Russia. However, recently gossipy tidbits about her hitting an arrangement
with Kremlin in the face of everyone’s good faith have been incredibly industrious. Her article
for The World in 2009, the yearly accumulation of forecasts for the year ahead incorporated by
The Economist, refers to the post-1945 compromise amongst France and Germany as a model
for Ukraine and Russia. Some individuals began to call Tymoshenko a Russian specialist in
Ukraine and associate her with advancing Russian business interests (Cimoli, Dosi and Stiglitz,
At present, numerous trusts it was not right to move far from Russia. Rapprochement
with Russia is frequently surrounded as an open deliberation amongst optimism and sobermindedness: self-sufficiency is pleasant however monetarily decimating. Forceful statement of
freedom promptly deciphers into higher gas costs, exchange aggravations, and withdrawal of
Russian organizations and capital. Ukraine’s product blast was to a huge degree made
conceivable by Russia’s vitality endowments. However as Ukraine moves out of Kremlin’s circle,
an impossible to miss custom has risen. Consistently around Christmas, Russia singularly
renegotiates the agreement for the gas supply and raises costs. Professedly, it’s being done to
spook Ukraine into offering its gas transport system. Towards the beginning of the current
annual period, the line finished in Russian gas supply to the EU being cut for a long time, in the
midst of allegations of Ukraine taking gas transported through its region (Ospian, 2013). It
marked a significant period of relations between the two countries constituting strained terms
and abilities to improve on the same.
Right on time in 2009, Ukraine’s Prime Minister swung to Russia, the U.S., the European
Union, China, and Japan for monetary help with the request to meet IMF prerequisites.
Conceivable Russian advance to Ukraine was rejected by Yushchenko as a danger to national
security: in the 1990s, Russia has steadily offered financial help to Ukraine, yet Ukraine has so
far denied it, inclining toward more costly credits from Washington for geopolitical reasons. The
initiation of the Eastern Partnership – another system for relations with ex-Soviet nations of
Eastern Europe and Caucasus rather than any pre-promotion talks – in May 2009 enraged Russia
since the EU was seen as an interloper into the Russian circle of special interests, which was
painted as a trade off of its security. In the meantime, Moscow was to a specific degree calmed to
hear the EU does not plan to incorporate Ukraine as its part at any point shortly, most likely
never (Cimoli, Dosi and Stiglitz, 2009). The eventual fate of Russia-Ukraine relations depends,
as it were, on who will win the up and coming 2010 presidential decisions in Ukraine.
Yushchenko and Tymoshenko, partners amid the Orange Revolution, however, likely adversaries
in the nearing races, are hooking for force while Viktor Yanukovych, the resistance pioneer, is
unobtrusively seeing his evaluations ascend as the two undercut each other, whatever the
expenses to the harmed economy are.
Cimoli, M., Dosi, G., & Stiglitz, J. (2009). Industrial Policy and Development: The Political
Economy of Capabilities Accumulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Duckett, B. (2011). Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia 2001406 Eastern Europe, Russia
and Central Asia. London: Europa Publications 2000. Xiv+613pp, ISBN: 1 85743 091 3
£225.00. Reference Reviews, 15(7), 48-49.
Engerman, S. L., & Sokoloff, K. L. (2008). Debating the role of institutions in political and
economic development: Theory, history, and findings. Annual Review of Political
Science, 11, 119-135.
Mezhevich, N. (2014). Europe without Russia and the Eastern. Balt. Reg., 4, 123-126.
Osipian, A. (2013). Transition Economies: Political Economy in Russia, Eastern Europe, and
Central Asia by Martin Myant and Jan Drahokoupil. Region: Regional Studies of Russia,
Eastern Europe, and Central Asia, 2(2), 317-319.
G427 2016 Russia and Its Neighbors
Roman Zlotin
Final (take-home) exam
Essay of a compulsory (4 pts) and three chosen (2pts each) questions (18, or more pages)
for graduate section, and a compulsory (4 pts) and two chosen (3 pts each) questions
(12, or more pages) for undergraduate section should be written in 12-font, doublespaced paper with 1” margins on both sides, and turned in to the class on April 26, 2016
Compulsory question
You should write a comparative analysis of regional features of contemporary economy in:
(1) Moscow Region
(2) Western Siberia
(3) Ukraine
(4) Armenia
(5) Kazakhstan
Choose questions (two – for undergraduate students, three – for graduate
students) from the following list:
What are the causes and consequences of environmental degradation in the former communist
states of Eastern Europe
Analyze the contemporary social and economic conditions and environmental problems in:
Analyze contemporary social and economic conditions and environmental problems in
Moscow City
Analyze contemporary social and economic conditions and environmental problems in:
(8) Armenia
(9) Chechen Republic
What are the current US interests in the Region of Caucasus?
Characterize geographic features and environmental problems in the Volga River basin
Analyze contemporary social and economic conditions and environmental problems in:
Analyze the environmental devastation and social catastrophe in the Aral Sea basin
Characterize the major features of the environment, and contemporary economic and
social conditions in the Russian Arctic
Why has the Baikal Lake Watershed been deserved the status of the World Heritage
Characterize contemporary Russia-Ukraine relations
Characterize contemporary Russia-Georgia relations

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