GEO101 (Peer discussion response 200 words each APA cited reference)


Please respond to both POST1: and POST2: in at least 200 words and APA cited reference.Required
Chapter 1 Introduction to Science in An introduction to geology. Salt Lake Community College. Open Educational ResourceChapter 2 Plate Tectonics in An introduction to geology. Salt Lake Community College. Open Educational ResourceChapter 4 Igneous Processes and Volcanoes (Section 4.5 only) in An introduction to geology. Salt Lake Community College. Open Educational ResourceChapter 8 Earth History in An introduction to geology. Salt Lake Community College. Open Educational Resource
Frebel, A., & Beers, T. C. (2018). The formation of the heaviest elements. arXiv preprint arXiv:1801.01190. Retrieved from, W. J., & Tilling, R. I. (1994). This dynamic Earth: The story of plate tectonics. United States Geological Survey.
POST1:Great post on the Indian Plate! It has had quite a dramatic geologic
history. Has the Indian subcontinent always been attached to Asia? What
kind of plate boundary currently connects the Eurasian Plate to the
Indian Plate? How are the Himalayas a result of that plate interaction?
Why aren’t there any volcanoes in the Himalayas (unlike the Andes, a
mountain chain that includes many active volcanoes)?

chose to do the African plate. The African Plate is a major tectonic
plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian. It includes
much of the continent of Africa, as well as oceanic crust which lies
between the continent and various surrounding ocean ridges.The western edge of the African Plate is a divergent boundary with
the North American Plate to the north and the South American Plate to
the south which forms the central and southern part of the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge. The African Plate is bounded on the northeast by the Arabian
Plate, the southeast by the Somali Plate, the north by the Eurasian
Plate, the Aegean Sea Plate, and the Anatolian Plate, and on the south
by the Antarctic Plate. The African Plate includes several cratons, stable blocks of old
crust with deep roots in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, and
less stable terranes, which came together to form the African continent
during the assembly of the supercontinent Pangea around 250 million
years ago. The cratons are, from south to north, the Kalahari Craton,
Congo Craton, Tanzania Craton and West African Craton. The cratons were
widely separated in the past, but came together during the Pan-African
orogeny and stayed together when Gondwana split up. The cratons are
connected by orogenic belts, regions of highly deformed rock where the
tectonic plates have engaged. The Saharan Metacraton has been
tentatively identified as the remains of a craton that has become
detached from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, but alternatively
may consist of a collection of unrelated crustal fragments swept
together during the Pan-African orogeny.
In some areas, the cratons
are covered by sedimentary basins, such as the Tindouf Basin, Taoudeni
Basin and Congo Basin, where the underlying archaic crust is overlaid by
more recent Neoproterozoic sediments. The plate includes shear zones
such as the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ) where, in the past, two
sections of the crust were moving in opposite directions, and rifts such
as the Anza Trough where the crust was pulled apart, and the resulting
depression filled with more modern sediment.The African Plate is rifting in the eastern interior of the African
continent along the East African Rift. This rift zone separates the
African Plate to the west from the Somali Plate to the east. One
hypothesis proposes the existence of a mantle plume beneath the Afar
region, whereas an opposing hypothesis asserts that the rifting is
merely a zone of maximum weakness where the African Plate is deforming
as plates to its east are moving rapidly northward.
The African
Plate’s speed is estimated at around 2.15 cm (0.85 in) per year. It has
been moving over the past 100 million years or so in a general northeast
direction. This is drawing it closer to the Eurasian Plate, causing
subduction where oceanic crust is converging with continental crust
(e.g. portions of the central and eastern Mediterranean). In the western
Mediterranean, the relative motions of the Eurasian and African plates
produce a combination of lateral and compressive forces, concentrated in
a zone known as the Azores–Gibraltar Fault Zone. Along its northeast
margin, the African Plate is bounded by the Red Sea Rift where the
Arabian Plate is moving away from the African Plate.
The New England
hotspot in the Atlantic Ocean has probably created a short line of mid-
to late-Tertiary age seamounts on the African Plate but appears to be
currently inactive.

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