Geography assignment about map projections (Cylindrical (or Mercator), Planar, Conic, and Pseudo cylindrical)


Find an example of one of these maps (cylindrical, planar, conic, and pseudocylindrical) – can be from a printed source, an online sourceIn a paragraph (or two) describe which map projection is being used in your example and discuss the resulting distortion the audience is seeing. The description should be a minimum of 150 words.Attach the image of the map u described in the assignment
find and discuss an example of a map projection not mentioned in the video or lecture (there are hundreds if not thousands of different types of map projections out there). Include an image and brief (additional 100 word minimum) description. Be sure to cite any sources used.

There are two video required to watch

1 attachmentsSlide 1 of 1attachment_1attachment_1

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College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
Introduction to Earth
The goals and objectives of this lecture are to:

Develop an understanding of how geographers study the world and use science to explain and understand
the natural and cultural landscapes.

Develop an understanding of geographic inquiry and geography as a discipline.
What is Geography?
If you’re taking this course with the expectation that the study of geography is going to be about memorizing
names and places on maps, you’ll be disappointed.
Geographers study the location and distribution of things – tangible things such as rainfall, mountains, and
trees, as well as less tangible things such as language, migration, and voting patterns. In short, geographers
look for and explain patterns in the physical and human landscape1.
Throughout this course you’ll learn about fundamental processes and patterns that are components of what
we know to be culture (such as population, religion, politics, urbanization, food systems, etc.). We will also
examine some of the ways human activities are increasingly altering our environment. By the time you
finish this course, my hope is that you’ll have a deeper understanding and appreciation for the Earth and
the cultural processes taking place on it.
The word geography comes from the Greek words meaning “Earth description.” Several thousand years
ago many scholars were indeed “Earth describers,” and therefore geographers more than anything else.
During this time, Chinese, Egyptian, and Phoenician civilizations were beginning to explore the places and
spaces within and outside their homelands. The earliest evidence of such explorations comes from the
archaeological discovery of a Babylonian clay tablet map that dates back to 2300 BCE 2. Click here to see an
image of this map as well as other early significant maps.
Over the centuries, there was a trend away from generalized Earth description toward more specialized
disciplines – such as geology, meteorology, economics, and biology – and so geography as a field of study
was somewhat overshadowed. Over the last few hundred years, geography has reaffirmed its place in the
academic world, and today geography is an expanding and flourishing field of study 1. Check out The
Association of American Geographers website to learn more about what geographers do as well as salary
data and trends.
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
Studying the World Geographically
Geographers study how things differ from place to place, i.e. the distributional and locational relationships
of things around the world (what is often referred to as the “spatial” aspect of things) 1. Geographers ask two
simple questions: where and why? If you are answering those two questions for any location, topic, process,
phenomena, etc., then you are using the discipline of geography.
Now, there are HUGE misconceptions of what geography actually is and what it entails.
{Inserting personal anecdote – when I meet someone for the first time and they ask me, “what do
you do for a living?” or “what did you go to school for?” and I reply and say “I’m a Geography
Instructor” or “I majored in geography”, usually the follow-up question is something along the lines
of “what’s the capital of Delaware?” or “what’s the name of that country next to Uzbekistan?”.
People assume that geography is locating and knowing names and places on a map. But as
mentioned earlier, this is not the case.}
A lot of these misconceptions stem from the fact that geography as a discipline is no longer taught in our K12 public school system anymore. It *sort of* gets lumped in with history (and usually involves drawing
locations on maps), but it’s rarely a separate class with its own separate curriculum. As a result, we tend to
associate geography with names on a map – otherwise known as place names. Place names are simple and
require no further skill other than basic memorization. Place names (such as the names and locations of the
50 states of the United States or the names and locations of the countries in Latin America or Africa or
Southeast Asia) are something we all should have learned in elementary and middle school when our brains
were at their peak in terms of memorization. Studies (such as this one) have shown that certain components
of our memorization skills begin to decline in early adulthood. There are of course exceptions to this, but
my point is that I am NEVER going to ask you to label the state of Arkansas on a blank map. Should you
know where Arkansas is? Absolutely. But you don’t need a college professor to teach you that. You can
simply print out a blank map and fill it in or you can buy a puzzle of the 50 states or the countries in Eastern
Europe or wherever (heck, there’s likely an app for that!). What I’m going to teach you is something that
takes a higher skill set and required college-level thinking – spatial analysis, or the where and why of
Earth’s physical features.
Since geography is the study of where and why, you can imagine how broad this discipline is. You can study
ANYTHING with this discipline as long as you’re answering those two basic questions.
{Inserting personal anecdote – this is one of the things I love most about this discipline. When I
first started my undergraduate career (at a community college) I began as a biology major. This
wasn’t because I was particularly fond of the subject, it was because I was told, “you need to pick a
major.” I chose biology because I was always interested in science and biology was the subject I
always did the best in and felt I understood it well. During my first semester I took an English,
math, biology, philosophy, and astronomy class. What I realized that first semester is that while I
was interested in my biology class I was also really
interested in my philosophy class and my astronomy
class. The following semester I took English, world
religions, history, environmental science, and
geography. I experienced the same thing – I was
interested in everything. I discovered during the second
semester that I could study all of those topics (history,
religion, biology, global warming, etc.) within the
context or discipline of geography. I switched majors
that second semester and have never looked back.
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
Geography as a discipline is very broad, and as a result, has been divided into two main branches – physical
geography and cultural (or human) geography. Physical geography is the spatial analysis (i.e. the where and
why) of the physical process and elements that make up the environment. This would include landforms,
rocks and minerals, water, weather and climate, plants, animals, soil, etc. Cultural (or human) geography
is the spatial analysis (i.e. the where and why) of the human elements and processes that make up cultures,
places and societies1. This would include population trends, economic activities, languages, religions,
political systems, settlements, food and agriculture, etc. Within these two branches exists many, many other
sub-fields (such as historical geography, geomorphology, etc.) as demonstrated by the image below.
Geography, therefore, doesn’t have its own body of facts or objects that only geographers study. The focus
of geology is rocks, the attention of economics is economic systems, demography examines human
population, and so on. Geography on the other hand is much broader in scope than most other disciplines
and therefore qualifies as interdisciplinary (meaning that it relates to more than one branch of knowledge).
Geographers, too, are interested in rocks and economic systems and population – specifically, describing
and understanding their location and distribution. To provide other examples, a geographer cannot
understand the distribution of different soil types without knowing something about the rocks from which
the soils were derived, the slopes on which the soils developed, and the climate and vegetation under which
they developed. Similarly, it is impossible to comprehend the distribution of agriculture without an
understanding of climate, topography, soil, drainage, population, economic conditions, technology,
historical development, and many other factors, both physical and cultural. Because of its wide scope,
geography bridges the academic gap between the natural (or physical) and social sciences 1.
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
Geographic Inquiry
What makes geography different from other disciplines is its focus on spatial inquiry and analysis.
Geographers also try to look for connections between things such as patterns, movement and migration,
trends, and so forth. In order for geographers to determine the where and why, they use methodologies
that are quite similar to the scientific method, but again with a geographic or spatial emphasis. This method
can be simplified into a four step process:
Ask a geographic question. This means to ask questions about spatial relationships in the world
around you.
2. Acquire geographic resources. Identify data and information that you need to answer your
3. Explore geographic data. Turn the data into maps, tables, and graphs, and look for patterns
and relationships.
4. Analyze geographic information. Determine what the patterns and relationships mean with
respect to your question.
Knowing where something is, how its location influences its characteristics, and how its location
influences relationships with other phenomena are the foundation of geographic thinking. This mode of
investigation asks you to see the world and all that is in it in spatial terms. Like other research methods, it
also asks you to explore, analyze, and act upon the things you find. It also is important to recognize that this
is the same method used by professionals around the world working to address social, economic, political,
environmental, and a range of scientific issues3.
1 Hess,
D. (2014). “Introduction to Earth”. McKnight’s Physical Geography, 3rd California Edition.
M. (2006). “Introduction to Maps”. Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition.
3 Dastrup, A., Ramjoue, G. (2016). “Into to Physical Geography”. Dynamic Earth: Introduction to Physical
2 Pidwirny,
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
Portraying the Earth
The goals and objectives of this lecture/chapter are to:

Develop an understanding of the size and shape of the Earth.

Become familiar with how geographers determine locations on Earth.

Know the basics of the Geographic Grid.

Explain what a map projection is.
The Size and Shape of the Earth
Our perception of Earth’s size, shape, and
topography is often distorted. Threedimensional wall maps and globes (such as
the example of Europe shown to the right)
exaggerate or emphasize landforms, such as
mountain ranges and valleys. These are often
exaggerated 8 to 20 times their actual
proportional dimensions.
The diameter of our planet is only about 13,000
kilometers (7,900 miles). Diameter is defined as a straight
line passing from side to side through the center of a body
or figure. The figure to the left illustrates Earths diameter
as measured from the North Pole to the South Pole and
from the equator. Note that the two measurements are not
equal (i.e. Earths diameter is slightly longer when
measured at the equator, as opposed to the North Pole
and South Pole. This will be addressed on page 3.
To put this in perspective, the Moon is 385,000 kilometers
(239,000 miles) from Earth and the Sun is 150,000,000,
kilometers (93,000,000 miles) away. The air travel
distance from San Francisco to New York City is about
4,000 kilometers (2,500 miles)1.
Earth’s surface varies in terms of elevation. The highest point on Earth, as measured from sea level, is
Mount Everest, which stands at 8.9 kilometers (5.5 miles). The lowest point on Earth, as measured from
sea level, exists on the seafloor. This is known as the Mariana Trench and it exists in the Pacific Ocean (east
of the Philippines and north of Guam). The trench is 11.03 kilometers (6.9 miles) below sea level. This
means that the total relief (or the total distance between the highest and lowest points on Earth) is only 19.9
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
kilometers (12.4 miles)1. Think about that for a minute. The distance between the highest and lowest points
on Earth is only 19.9 kilometers (12.4 miles). The distance from my house to the Oakland Airport is over
96.6 kilometers (60 miles) one way!
In terms of shape, Earth is almost, but not quite spherical. As mentioned previously, Earths diameter is
slightly larger when measured from the center of the Earth along the equator, then measured from North
Pole to South Pole. This means the surface of Earth flattens slightly at the North Pole and the South Pole
and bulges out slightly around the equator. Why does this happen? Enter Physics & Astronomy – any
rotating body has a tendency to bulge around its equator and flatten at the polar ends of its rotational axis 1.
Although the rock materials that make-up the Earth may seem quite rigid and immovable to us, they are
pliable and flexible (you’ll see further examples of this when we examine Earths tectonic plates in a couple
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
of weeks). What does all of this mean? Well, it means it is inaccurate to call our planet a perfect sphere. The
correct term for its shape (slight bulging in the center and flatter at the poles) is an oblate spheroid.
The Geographic Grid
As mentioned previously, geographers determine where and why. Where is usually the easier of the two
questions to answer, so this is where we will begin our fundamental geographic work. In order to determine
accurate locations on Earth, we have developed a grid system which consists of two sets of lines that
intersect at right angles. This allows the location of any point on the surface to be described by the
appropriate intersection. This grid system is known as The Geographic Grid or Latitude and Longitude.
Before we dive into latitude and longitude, it’s important to understand the difference between great circles
and small circles on a globe. Any plane that is passed through the center of a sphere bisects that sphere (i.e.
divides it into two equal halves) and creates what is called a great circle where it intersects the surface of
the sphere. The equator is an example of a great circle, because it cuts the globe equally in half. Planes
passing through any other part of the sphere produce what are called small circles where they intersect with
the surface (i.e. they do not cut the sphere/globe into two equal halves). See the images on the following
page for further details. Great circles have two properties of special interest for us:
1. A great circle is the largest circle that can be drawn on a sphere; it represents the circumference of
that sphere and divides its surface into two equal halves or hemispheres. As well see later in this
lecture/chapter, the dividing line between daytime and nighttime halves of Earth is a great circle.
2. A path between two points along the arc of a great circle is always the shortest route between those
points. Such routes on Earth are known as great circle routes (which will be discussed more in the
next chapter).
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
1. Latitude
Lines of latitude, also called parallels, are oriented in an east-west direction. Latitude lines always run
parallel to each other, and hence they are always equal distance apart. Latitude lines never converge or
cross. What are these lines measuring? When you see latitude values they are expressed as degrees (°). This
is because latitude lines are a description of location expressed as an angle north or south of the equator.
As shown in the image on the following page, we can project a line from any location on Earth’s surface to
the center of the Earth. The angle between this line and the equator is the latitude of that location. The
starting/beginning line of latitude is the equator or 0°. The equator is the starting line simply because it is
the largest parallel (i.e. a great circle) that can be drawn on the globe. In other words, the equator cuts the
globe into two equal hemispheres. All other parallels are small circles. The half of the globe north of the
equator is the northern hemisphere and the half south of the equator is the southern hemisphere. Lines of
latitude or parallels end at two specific points, the North and South Poles. These are represented at 90°N
(North Pole) and 90°S (South Pole). This means that the values for latitude range from a minimum of 0° to
a maximum of 90°. There is never a 91°N or a 200°S – 90 is the stopping point for latitude.
When determining the latitude of a location you must designate which hemisphere you are located in. As
you can see by the images below, the northern and southern hemisphere are mirror images of each other.
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
If I said I buried one hundred million dollars’ cash at 35° latitude, you have two choices – 35°N or 35°S.
This is not very accurate. If I said I buried one hundred million dollars’ cash at 35°N, then it gives you a
narrower focus and you know to look in the northern hemisphere along the 35°N parallel. The only time
you do not have to designate which hemisphere you’re in is when you are referring to the equator. The
degrees for the equator is always simply 0° latitude because you are at the line in-between both
The image to the right is illustrating how lines of
latitude are determined. For example, the 30°N
parallel is located where it is because the angle that
is created between the equator, the position on the
surface, and the center of the Earth is 30°, so the
latitude is 30°N. Same for the North Pole – the
angle that is creased between the equator, the
North Pole, and the center of the Earth is 90°, so
its latitude is 90°N
Remember, lines of latitude:

Are known as parallels

Run in an east-west direction

Measure distance north or south from the equator

Are parallel to one another and never meet
➢ Get shorter toward the poles; the equator is the only
great circle
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
There are seven significant parallels or lines of latitude you should familiarize yourself with:
1. North Pole = 90°N
2. Arctic Circle = 66.5°N
3. Tropic of Cancer = 23.5°N
4. Equator = 0°
5. Tropic of Capricorn = 23.5°S
6. Antarctic Circle = 66.5°S
7. South Pole = 90°S
Note: The North Pole and South pole are points,
rather than lines (or you can think of them as
indefinitely small parallels. We will discuss the
significance of these shortly.
2. Longitude
Lines of longitude, also called meridians, are oriented in a north-south direction. Unlike lines of latitude,
meridians are not parallel. They do not cross, but they do converge at the North Pole and South Pole. Lines
of longitude extend from pole to pole and cross all parallels at right angles. Any pair of meridians is farthest
apart at the equator, becoming increasingly close together northward and southward and finally converging
at the poles. What are these lines measuring? When you see longitude values they are expressed as degrees
(°), same as parallels. This is because longitude lines are a description of an east-west location as measured
from the Prime Meridian.
The Prime Meridian has an interesting history. The
equator is the natural baseline from which to measure
latitude, but no such natural reference lines exists for
longitude. Consequently, for most of recorded history,
there was no accepted longitudinal baseline; each
country would select its own “prime meridian” as the
reference line for east-west measurement. Thus, the
French measured from the meridian of Paris, the
Italians from the meridian of Rome, and so forth. At
least 13 prime meridians were in use in the 1880s. Not
until the late 1800s was standardization finally
achieved1. The catalyst for this standardization was the
Unites States and Canadian railway. Railway
executives needed to adopt a standard time system
(the Prime Meridian is also the reference for standard
time). Prior to standardization, different countries and
even cities were on different times due to the use of different prime meridians. This made railway commutes
and scheduling difficult. In 1883 all North American railroads adopted a standard time system and the
following year, an international conference was held in Washington, D.C., to achieve the same goal on a
global scale and to agree upon a single Prime Meridian. After weeks of debate, the delegates settled on the
meridian passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the Prime Meridian for all
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
longitudinal measurement. The principal argument for adopting the Greenwich meridian was that more
than two-thirds of the world’s shipping lanes already used the Greenwich meridian as a navigational base.
Longitude is measured both east and west of the Prime Meridian to a maximum of 180° in each direction.
The total number of degrees in a globe/circle is 360. If you divide 360 by two (i.e. split the eastern and
western hemispheres), you get 180. Exactly halfway around the globe from the Prime Meridian, in the
middle of the Pacific Ocean, is the 180° meridian – this is also known as the International Date Line.
When determining the longitude of a location you must designate which hemisphere you are located in. As
you can see by the images below, the eastern and western hemisphere are mirror images of each other. If I
said I buried one hundred million dollars’ cash at 120° longitude, you have two choices – 120°W or 120°E.
This is not very accurate. If I said I buried one hundred million dollars’ cash at 120°E, then it gives you a
narrower focus and you know to look in the northern hemisphere along the 120°E meridian. The only time
you do not have to designate which hemisphere you’re in is when you are referring to the Prime Meridian
or the International Date Line. The degrees for the Prime Meridian are always simply 0° longitude. The
degrees for the International Date Line are always 180°. This is because you are at the line in-between both
hemispheres at both of those meridians.
Remember, lines of longitude:

Are known as meridians

Run in a north-south direction

Measure distance east or west from the Prime

Are furthest apart at the equator and meet at the poles

Cross the equator at right angles

Are equal in length

Are halves of great circles
3. Locating Points
Where a line of latitude and a line of longitude intersect, is a point
(otherwise known as coordinate). You’ll often see coordinates
expressed as either degrees, minutes, and seconds or decimal degrees.
The reason why you don’t see coordinate expressed as whole degrees is
because of the amount of space in between each degree. In other words,
there is a LOT of space between each parallel (just under 70 miles to be
exact; see the image to the right on the previous page). In order to
account for this space, there needs to be additional lines in between
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
each whole degree. So, in between each line of latitude and longitude are 60 lines (or minutes) and in
between those lines are 60 more (which are referred to as seconds). Having these extra lines in between
each whole degree means almost every inch of space/surface of Earth is accounted for. Here is an example
of the degrees, minutes, seconds coordinates for College of Alameda:
Decimal degrees on the other hand are a simplified version of degrees, minutes, seconds. Here is an
example of the decimal degree coordinates for College of Alameda. Notice that it is really easy to add,
subtract, divide, etc. decimal degrees rather than degrees, minutes, seconds. Something also worth noting
is that hemispheres aren’t designated with N, S, E, or W like they are for degrees, minutes, seconds. Instead
the hemispheres are determined by positive and negative numbers. For example, with latitude, a positive
number represents the northern hemisphere and negative number represents the southern hemisphere.
For longitude, a positive number represents the eastern hemisphere and a negative number represents the
western hemisphere.
This information is optional (i.e. I will not test you on this): for those of you who are interested in time
zones and how the days in each hemisphere are determined read this.
Tools of the Geographer
A map is the fundamental tool of the geographer. With a map, one can illustrate the spatial distribution
(i.e., geographic pattern) of almost any kind of phenomena. Maps provide a wealth of information. The
information collected to create a map is called spatial data. Any object or characteristic that has a
location can be considered spatial data. Maps can depict two kinds of data. Qualitative map data is in
the form of a quality and expresses the presence or absence of the subject on a map, like the kind of
vegetation present occupying a region. Quantitative map data is expressed as a numerical value, like
elevation in meters, or temperature is degrees Celsius. There are many different kinds of maps that
serve quite different purposes1.
The science of mapmaking (yes it’s a real science) is cartography.
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
2. Map Projections
Now, it’s important to understand that maps can be very misleading. All flat maps have distortion.
This is because it is mathematically impossible (as you’ll see in the YouTube videos this week) to
flatten a 3-D object onto a flat piece of paper without causing the size or shape or distance to become
inaccurate. The most accurate representation of Earth and its spatial relationships is on a globe. The
challenge to the cartographer (map maker) is to try to combine the geometric exactness of a globe
with the convenience of a flat map. This this melding has been attempted for many centuries, and
further refinements continue to be made. The fundamental problem is always the same: to transfer
data from a spherical surface to a flat map with a minimum amount of distortion. This transfer is
accomplished with a map projection.
A map projection is a system in which the spherical surface of Earth is transformed for display on a
flat surface. The basic principle of a map projection is simple. Imagine a transparent globe on which
are drawn meridians, parallels and continental boundaries; also imagine a lightbulb in the center of
this globe. A piece of paper, either held flat or rolled into some shape such as a cylinder or cone is
placed over the globe (see image below). When the bulb is lighted, all the lines on the globe are
projected outward onto the paper. These lines are then sketched on the paper. When the paper is laid
out flat, a map projection has been produced. Due to modern technology, we no longer need to hand
draw maps. We can simply click on the projection type we want to use (which is done mathematically
using computer software).
Because a flat surface cannot be closely fitted to a sphere without wrinkling or tearing, no matter how
a map projection is made, data from a globe (parallels, meridians, continental boundaries, and so
forth) cannot be transferred without distortion of shape, relative area, distance, and/or direction.
However, a cartographer can choose to control or reduce one or more of these distortions (although
all distortions cannot be eliminated on a single map.
There are hundreds of different map projections. Click here to see some of them. Most of these
hundreds can be grouped into just a few families. Projections in the same family generally have
similar properties and relative distortion characteristics.
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
The four main map projection families are:
1. Cylindrical Projection
2. Planar Projection
3. Conic Projection
4. Pseudocylindrical Projection
A cylindrical projection is made by mathematically “wrapping” the globe with a cylinder of paper
in such a way that the paper touches the globe only at the globes equator. We say that paper
positioned this way is tangent to the globe at the equator. The curved parallels and meridians of
the globe then form a perfectly rectangular grid on a map. There is no size distortion at the point
of tangency, but size distortion does increase progressively with increasing distance from this
The most famous map projection, the Mercator projection, originated in 1569 by a Flemish
geographer and cartographer. The Mercator projection is a type of cylindrical projection (i.e. it
belongs in the cylindrical family). The Mercator projection is designed to facilitate oceanic
navigation. The easiest way to tell that you are looking at a cylindrical or Mercator projection is to
look at Greenland. In actuality, Greenland is only about the size of Latin America, but on a
cylindrical projection it looks almost the same size as Africa.
A planar projection is obtained by projecting the markings of a center-lit globe onto a flat piece of
paper that is tangent to the globe at one point (see image on the following page) – usually the
North or South Pole, or some point along the equator. The is no distortion immediately around
the point of tangency, but the distortion increases progressively away from this point. Typically,
planar projections only show one hemisphere.
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
A conic projection is obtained by projecting the markings of a center-lit globe onto a cone
wrapped tangent to, or intersecting, a portion of the globe (see image below). Normally the apex
of the cone is positioned above a pole, which means that the circle of tangency coincides with a
parallel. Distortion is least in the vicinity of this parallel and increases progressively as one moves
away from it. Consequently, conic projections are best suited for regions of east-west orientation
in the midlatitudes, being particularly useful for maps of the United States, Europe, and China.
A pseudocylindrical projection is a roughly football-shaped map, usually of the entire world (see
image on the following page), although sometimes only the central section of a pseudocylindrical
projection is used for maps of lesser areas. Mathematically, a pseudocylindrical projection wraps
around the equator like an ordinary cylindrical projection, but then further “curves” in toward the
College of Alameda
GEOG 2: Cultural Geography
Professor Bow
poles, effectively conveying some of the curvature of the Earth. In most pseudocylindrical
projections, a central parallel (usually the equator) and a central meridian (often the prime
meridian) cross at right angles in the middle of the map, which is a point of no distortion.
Distortion in size and/or shape normally increases progressively as one moves away from this
point in any direction. All of the parallels are drawn parallel to each other, whereas all meridians,
except for the central meridian, are shown as curved lines.

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