Geology – Volcano Activity and calculations

Description

Tasks: View the two maps The following instructions Calculating slope: The innermost loop on each map is the center of the volcano. On the Mt. Saint Helens map, pick two points along the black line B-B’ where two different brown lines cross the black line. It doesn’t matter which two brown lines you choose as long as they are on the same side of the volcano (same side of innermost loop).Determine the values of the two brown lines you chose. Notice the values of some brown lines are on the map. Subtract the two. Include units of feet.Next determine the distance between the brown lines you chose. Lay the edge of a piece of scratch paper across line B-B’. Put a tick mark at the two brown lines you chose. Now pick up the piece of paper and lay it across the scale. How many miles did you get? You will need to estimate. Multiply your letter “c” answer by 5280 since there are 5280 feet in 1 mile. Now divide letter “b” answer by letter “d” answer. Since you have feet divided by feet, the units cancel out (no units). Your answer will be a number (decimal) less than 1. Do the same process for Mauna Loa. Determining the distance across the volcano: make sure you measure all the way across the entire box from corner to corner (not the length of the black line).Determining relief: you’ll either need to add or subtract. You’ve already determined the maximum elevation (value of the innermost loop on each volcano). Now either add or subtract the values given to you in the box depending on whether the base of the mountain is below or above sea level.

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Volcano Activity
Name:___________________________
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to identify volcano types based off size, shape, slope
and to associate hazards with volcano types.
Knowledge gained:
• Associate magma chemistry with the volcano type.
• Associate volcano type with tectonic setting.
• Determine which hazards are associated with which type of volcano.
Activity I: Comparing two volcanoes (Mt. Saint Helens, Washington and Mauna Loa, Hawaii)
• View the two maps on the next page. You’ll be completing the table on page 3.
• The following instructions are for some of the more challenging questions in the table on
page 3.
o Calculating slope:
a) The innermost loop on each map is the center of the volcano. On the Mt. Saint
Helens map, pick two points along the black line B-B’ where two different brown
lines cross the black line. It doesn’t matter which two brown lines you choose as
long as they are on the same side of the volcano (same side of innermost loop).
b) Determine the values of the two brown lines you chose. Notice the values of
some brown lines are on the map. Subtract the two. Include units of feet.
c) Next determine the distance between the brown lines you chose. Lay the edge of
a piece of scratch paper across line B-B’. Put a tick mark at the two brown lines
you chose. Now pick up the piece of paper and lay it across the scale. How many
miles did you get? You will need to estimate.
d) Multiply your letter “c” answer by 5280 since there are 5280 feet in 1 mile.
e) Now divide letter “b” answer by letter “d” answer. Since you have feet divided
by feet, the units cancel out (no units). Your answer will be a number (decimal)
less than 1.
f) Do the same process for Mauna Loa.
o Determining the distance across the volcano: make sure you measure all the way
across the entire box from corner to corner (not the length of the black line).
o Determining relief: you’ll either need to add or subtract. You’ve already determined
the maximum elevation (value of the innermost loop on each volcano). Now either add
or subtract the values given to you in the box depending on whether the base of the
mountain is below or above sea level.
Mt. Saint Helens (left)
Mauna Loa (below)
Mt. Saint Helens
(small map)
Mauna Loa (larger
map)
Based on your
numbers, which
volcano is steeper?
Slope (calculate rise/run).
Pick one side of the
volcano. Pick two points
along the black line.
Determine the difference
in elevation and divide by
the distance on the map.
unitless decimal.
1 mile = 5280 ft
MATH!
Distance across the entire
volcano (from the corner
to corner for each
map/box)
Maximum elevation
(include units of feet)
Relief of the volcanic peak.
(“Relief” is the elevation
change from the lowest to
the highest point).
Which volcano is
larger across?
Nothing to fill in here
since maximum
elevation doesn’t tell
type.
The base of Mt. Saint
Helens is at an
elevation of 3280
feet above sea level.
Relief: ___________
ft
Type of volcano (shield,
stratovolcano, cinder
cone, caldera)
The seafloor
Which volcano is
around Hawaii is
bigger from
16,000 ft below sea bottom to top?
level.
Relief: __________
ft
Nothing to fill in
here.
Type of crust (oceanic,
continental)
Nothing to fill in
here.
Type of magma
(felsic/intermediate/mafic)
Nothing to fill in
here.
Viscosity of magma
(low/medium/high)
Nothing to fill in
here.
Eruption style (quiet or
explosive)
Nothing to fill in
here.
Volcanic Hazards (List as
see Ch. 7 and the chapter
PDF slides for hazards
associated with the type of
volcano you determined
above.)
Nothing to fill in
here.
Activity II: Mount Hood, Oregon
Please see the Mount Hood, Oregon map below (first map) and answer the questions below.
1. What is the fractional scale of this map?
2. What is the contour interval of this map?
3. What is the maximum elevation of Mount Hood? (NOTE: Surveyed elevations are
written on the map. Don’t forget to include the units!)
4. Mount Hood is a snow- and glacier-covered mountain. What is the approximate
diameter of snow-covered part of Mount Hood? (NOTE: Surveyed elevations are written
on the map. You may need to zoom in. Do not use the Internet. Don’t forget to include
units! How do you know the units? Please refer to the contour interval units.)
5. Based on your measurements from questions 3 and 4 and your understanding of
volcanoes, is Mount Hood a shield volcano, a cinder cone, caldera or stratovolcano?
6. When Mount Hood erupts, what are the major hazards you would expect? (You don’t
need to do research about Mount Hood. Instead what are the hazards of this type of
volcano?)
7. Based on your understanding of plate tectonics and volcanoes, along what type of plate
boundary is Mount Hood found?
Activity III: S P Mountain, Arizona (also known as S P Crater)
Please see the SP Mountain map (second map) and answer the questions below.
8. What is the fractional scale of this map?
9. Consider the scales of both maps. The SP Mountain, AZ map is more zoomed in/zoomed
out (circle one) than the Mt. Hood, OR map.
10. What is the contour interval of this map?
11. What is the maximum elevation of S P Mountain? (NOTE: Surveyed elevations are
written on the map. Don’t forget to include the units! Please refer to the contour
interval units.)
12. The elevation you determined in question 11 is the maximum elevation above sea level.
To determine what type of volcano this is, we need to determine how tall S P Mountain
actually is. To do this, we need to know the elevation of the base of S P Mountain. What
is the elevation of the point (line) where S P Mountain touches the dark-colored lava
flow?
13. What is the relief of S P Mountain? To calculate relief, subtract the elevation of S P
Mountain’s base (Question 12) from its maximum elevation (Question 11).
14. S P Mountain is small enough to fit on this map. Draw a circle around the base of S P
Mountain. What is the approximate diameter of S P Mountain?
15. Based on your measurements from questions 13 and 14 and your understanding of
volcanoes, is S P Mountain a shield volcano, cinder cone, caldera or stratovolcano?
16. What are the hazards of this type of volcano? List all that apply.
*And for a chuckle, look up what “S P” Crater stands for. ☺
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