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Lab 13 problems.docx

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Lab 13: 51 Pegasi

Summary This investigation details how scientists discovered a planet orbiting another star and

compares the results of the discovery with planets in our solar system.

Materials

Graph Paper

Scientific Calculator

Background and Theory In just the past few years, astronomers have announced discoveries

of at least 30 planets orbiting nearby stars. These discoveries seem to finally answer the

question of whether or not our solar system is unique. We should note, however, that when

astronomers state that they have discovered a new planet, what they are really saying is that

their data can best be interpreted as a planet orbiting a star. One cannot “prove” that these

other planets exist (short of actually going there to explore!); one can only state that, until the

hypothesis is disproved, a planet orbiting the star best explains the observations. We cannot

see these planets. We can only measure indirectly the influence each one has on its parent star

as the star and planet orbit their common center of mass. The planet makes the star “wobble.”

We enter this realm of discovery by working with actual data from observations of the star 51

Pegasi (51 Peg) made at the Lick Observatory in California. These data are the measurements

of the Doppler shift of the wavelengths of the absorption lines seen in the spectra of 51 Peg.

Table 1 lists the measured radial velocities (RV) as a function of time (recorded in days). As you

can see, the radial velocities are sometimes positive and sometimes negative indicating that

sometimes the star is receding from (the light is red-shifted) and sometimes approaching (the

light is blue-shifted) our frame of reference. This wobble of the star was the first indication that

the star 51 Peg had an invisible companion.

Observations

TABLE v (m/s)

1: 51

Pegasi

Radial

Velocity

Data

Day

0.6

-20.2

0.7

-8.1

0.8

5.6

1.6

56.4

1.7

66.8

3.6

-35.1

3.7

-42.6

4.6

-33.5

Day

v (m/s)

Day

v (m/s)

Day

v (m/s)

4.7

4.8

5.6

5.7

5.8

6.6

6.7

7.7

-27.5

-22.7

45.3

47.6

56.2

65.3

62.5

-22.6

7.8

8.6

8.7

8.8

9.6

9.7

9.8

10.6

-31.7

-44.1

-37.1

-35.3

25.1

35.7

41.2

61.3

10.7

10.8

11.7

11.8

12.6

12.7

13.6

13.7

56.9

51

-2.5

-4.6

-38.5

-48.7

2.7

17.6

Note: The days of the observations in this table are expressed in the number of days, or

fraction thereof, from when the astronomer first started observing. That is, the dome of

the telescope was first opened at Day = 0.

Table 1 lists the observed radial velocities. These were obtained by measuring the Doppler shift

for the absorption lines using the formula:

Solving for the radial velocity v of the star:

Here, c is the speed of light, is the laboratory wavelength of the absorption line being measured,

and is the difference between the measured wavelength of the line and the laboratory value.

Procedure:

1. Plot the 32 data points on graph paper, setting up your scale and labels. Use the observed

radial velocities (in m/s) versus the day of the observation.

2. Draw a smooth curve (do not simply connect-the-dots) through the data. The curve is a sine

curve (ask if you don’t know) and thus will always reach the same maximum and minimum

values and have the same “number of days” between each “peak” and “valley”. You should

interpolate between data where points are missing.

3. Thought question: Why are there data missing? Why are there sizable gaps in the data?

(Hint, some gaps are a little over 1/2 day long and these are observations from the ground.)

Worksheet

1. A period is defined as one complete cycle; that is, where the radial velocities return to the

same position on the curve (but at a later time). How many cycles did the star go through during

the 14 days of observations?

Number of cycles = ___________

2. What is the period, P, in days?

Period = ___________ days

3. What is P in years?

P = _____________ years

4. What is the uncertainty in your determination of the period? That is, by how many days or

fractions of a day could your value be wrong?

Uncertainty = ___________ days

5. What is the amplitude, K? (Take 1/2 of the value of the full range of the velocities.)

K = ___________ m/s

6. How accurate is your determination of this value?

Uncertainty = __________ m/s

7. We will make some simplifying assumptions for this new planetary system:

a. the orbit of the planet is circular (e = 0)

b. the mass of the star is 1 solar mass

c. the mass of the planet is much, much less that of the star

d. we are viewing the system nearly edge on

e. we express everything in terms of the mass and period of Jupiter

We makethese assumptions to simplify the equations we have to use for determining the mass

of the planet. The equation we must use is:

P should be expressed in years (or fraction of a year), and K in m/s. Twelve years is the

approximate orbital period for Jupiter and 13 m/s is the magnitude of the “wobble” of the Sun

due to Jupiter’s gravitational pull. Not all calculators will take the cube root of a number. Get

help if yours does not. Put in your values for P and K and calculate the mass of this new planet

in terms of the mass of Jupiter. That is, your calculations will give the mass of the planet as

some factor times the mass of Jupiter (for example: Mplanet = 4 MJupiter). Show all work.

8. Assume that the parent star is 1 solar mass, and that the planet is much less massive than

the star. We can then calculate the distance this planet is away from its star, in astronomical

units (AU’s) by using Kepler’s third law:

Again, P is expressed in years (or fraction of a year), and a represents the semi-major axis in

AU’s. Solve for a:

a = __________ AU

9. Compare this planet to those in our solar system. For example, Mercury is 0.4 AU from the

Sun; Venus, 0.7 AU; Earth, 1.0 AU; Mars, 1.5 AU; Jupiter, 5.2 AU. Jupiter is more massive than

all the rest of the matter in the solar system combined, excluding the Sun. What is unusual

about this new planet?

10. Science is based upon the ability to predict outcomes. However, nothing prepared

astronomers for the characteristics of this “new” solar system. Why was it such a surprise?

11. If this actually is a planet, is it possibly hospitable to life? Explain.

12. Name your new planet — a privilege you would have if you really did discover a new

Planet!

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