# ​Lab Exercise 1: The Scientific Process (20 points)

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Lab Exercise 1: The Scientific Process (20 points)Section 1 – Scientific Method
Part 1. Use your textbook and interactive lab lecture to answer the following questions about earthquake measurement.Use figure 6.20, page 184 in your textbook to help you fill in the blanks:S-P, sec Magnitude Amplitude mm4 5
8 4 5.5 1002 20
The Pacific plate is moving at an average of 5 cm per year, but this has changed over time. Use the following schematic to calculate the average rate of movement from Kilauea to:MidwayGardnerNeckerOahu *divide the number of km by number of millions of years, then multiply by 0.1 for conversion to cm/yearDescribe the difference between the Mercalli Scale and Richter Scale.How many times more ground shaking happens with a 6.0 earthquake over a 4.0 earthquake? How many times more energy is release with a 6.0 over a 4.0 earthquake?Describe the P waves, S waves, and surface waves.
Part 2. Use your textbook and interactive lab lecture to answer the following questions in your own words.In a compressional regime, would we find more normal or more reverse faults, and why.Would we find normal faults in a compressional regime or tensional regime, and why?Describe the differences between a normal fault and a reverse fault.Describe the differences between anticlines and synclines.Describe the difference in the rock unit age relationship between domes and basins.Describe a strike slip fault. Provide an example of one.Which of the structures discussed above are the result of brittle deformation?Which of the structures discussed above are the result of ductile deformation?Using the diagrams below, which of these are the result of ductile deformation?Which of these diagrams are brittle deformation?

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Figure 6.20 Determining the Richter magnitude of an
earthquake
1. Measure the height (amplitude) of the
largest wave on the seismogram (23 mm)
and plot it on the amplitude
scale (right).
2. Determine the distance to the
earthquake using the time interval
separating the arrival of the first P
wave and the arrival of the first S
wave (24 seconds) and plot it on
the distance scale (left).
24 sec.
Amplitude 23 mm
-30 mm
-20
-10
Р
اول را براساس
S
Seismograph
record
Time
sec.
0 10 20
S-P, Distance,
sec. km
Magnitude,
500
M
50
-400
40
6
– 300
30
s
20
200
4
19
100
60
3
40
Amplitude,
mm
100
50
20
ပွဲ ” 20060 +
IT
+10
3
-5
+2
+1
+0.5
4
N
1-
+1.2
N
.
– 20
0.5
-0.1
3. Draw a line connecting the two plots
and read the Richter magnitude (M, 5)
from the magnitude scale (center).

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Tags:
geo

scientific process

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