Nickelodeon A Subscription TV Channel Case Analysis


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RESEARCH REPORTS (To prepare for the Week 6 Assignment):
• First Research. (2020).First Research Industry Profile – Television Broadcasting.pdf [Report].
Retrieved from JWU Library
• First Research (2020). First Research Industry Profile – Radio Broadcasting &
Programming.pdf [Report]. Retrieved from JWU Library
• IBISWorld. (2020). “Television Broadcasting in the US.” Retrieved from JWU Library
About Case Analyses:
• A case analysis (Weeks 3-7) is: generally, a short report focused on an individual company or
person within an industry; the focus of a case analysis is typically to hone in on a particular initiative
to demonstrate company’s success. Alternatively, a case analysis may be done to highlight a
company’s mistakes in order to help learn from the example. You may also choose to submit this
assignment as a “creative deliverable” (see below).
• The content of a case analysis is as follows:
• A definition of the sub-sector of the industry that we are studying
• Current trends in the sub-sector of the industry that we are studying
• Case study on one company that is experiencing success, “disrupting” the business
environment, etc. or – you may highlight two companies that are collectively doing this or
working together in a partnership. You may bring ideas to your professor as well.
• Fact Sheet or sidebar in your report: A comprehensive list of trade organizations in this subsector of the industry with links
• Fact Sheet or sidebar in your report: A comprehensive list of trade journals in this sector of
the industry with links
• Reference List
• In each of these assessments, you are asked to use class material to create business reports for
trends/issues in the entertainment industries and the related sub-sectors of the industry. Including
class resources,a minimum of three outside sourcesper assignment is required to show that your
work is research-based. You must use one of the following as a resource for this assignment:
• IBIS World reports linked in this week’s materials
• First Research reports linked in this week’s materials
• You are asked to reflect upon a minimum of three vocabulary words/topicsfrom that week of class
in your assignment. You may (and are encouraged to) use more! Clear demonstration of your
understanding of these words/topics will be graded. These will also be noted as “keywords”at the
close of your assignment.
• All work must be properly referenced using APA 7th citation format.
• All assignments must be reflective of college-level writing and the JWU standards for written work.
Format Guidelines:
• Create a PDF report document meant to teach others about the content required for this assignment.
In this report, please provide 400-500 words in written content. There is no page requirement. This
is because in these reports, pictures & graphs are common. Often, the 400-500 words are broken up
over several pages to show industry insight along with pictoral content and data visualization.

PDF format is preferred as this should be a highly formatted document and this will help
maintain formatting when you upload to ulearn. However, Word documents may also be
submitted. Check the formatting after you upload.
• Please do not submit Pages documents as the professor cannot access this file format
in ulearn.
The PDF report document should be highly formatted – using color, page borders, images,
unique/modern fonts, graphs, charts, sidebars, titles, captions, footnotes, document titles, section
titles, etc. You do not need to use all of these elements, but the idea here is that your finished product
is “industry-standard.” You do not need to be a graphic design expert to complete this assessment,

but you are welcome to use any skills you have in this respect! See the examples below. This should
not look like a traditional academic assignment – it must look like an entertainment industry
• If you are not familiar with some of these features, consider viewing some of
the Canva tutorials – this program is really easy to use for assignments like this!
Please use a professional font, reasonable line spacing, reasonable margins.
Use thoughtful organization when putting this together (e.g. using a title page and table of contents
for instance, while not required, is great for organization)
Consider that you might start posting your documents into whichever portfolio platform you plan to
use for your final project. It is recommended that as you get feedback from the professor, make
revisions immediately and then collect the finished documents in your portfolio.
830 words minimum
In this module, you will be guided through a multimedia lesson meant to introduce an overview
of the entertainment industry. You will encounter readings, videos, podcasts and other
resources. It is important to return to the lesson if you follow a link to an outside source. There
are self-checks provided throughout the lesson so that you can track your progress. You are
encouraged to download/print the guided notes and complete them while you progress through
the lesson. The material from this lesson will contribute to your success in completing the week’s
Course Outline
The Television Industry
The Business of Television Broadcasting and TV Stations
The Business of Television Program Production
Television networks
Netflix case study
Working in tv
In this unit, we will:
Explore the history of the television and video streaming industries.
Illuminate connections to the modern-day television industry
Analyze economic considerations of the television and video streaming industries
Explore the television and video streaming industries within the context of the larger
entertainment industry.
Play Video
Industry Definitions: Fields in Television

Television Broadcasting

TV broadcasters operate studios and facilities that program and
deliver audiovisual content to the public via over-the-air
transmission. The types of programming offered can be made by
broadcasters or by affiliates that exist outside the industry. This
industry excludes cable and satellite TV and operators that
provide online-only content. (Pradhan, 2020)

Television Production

Companies in this industry produce TV programming that is then
licensed or sold to broadcast or cable networks. Movie
production is also excluded from this industry, with the exception
of made-for-TV movie production.

Internet Publishing and Broadcasting (this lecture is focused on videoon-demand services)

This industry includes organizations and individuals that offer
nonphysical products, such as news, music and video, exclusively
through the internet. Revenue for this industry is derived from
the sale of advertising space or subscriptions to consumers. In
addition, companies may derive revenue from intellectual
property licensing and the sale of user information to third
parties. This industry does not include search engines, internet
service providers or publishers of offline content. (we will
explore this sector later in the lesson via a case study on Netflix)
Major companies in these sectors:
Television Broadcasting
Television Production
Internet Publishing and Broadcasting
Trends in Television
Major Televised Events – Despite competition from other media, the best way to reach the
largest possible audience remains network television. Events such as the Super Bowl, the
Olympics, and the Academy Awards are top-rated network programs that regularly draw
millions of viewers and attract major advertising dollars. Super Bowl broadcasts, during
which a 30-second ad typically costs about $5 million, take turns airing on CBS, Fox, and
NBC through a contract with the NFL that lasts through 2022.
Cord-Cutting – Viewers may drop cable services in favor of free broadcast TV during weak
economic times. The practice of canceling cable — “cutting the cord” — also is driven by the
rising availability of online entertainment alternatives. Cord-cutters rely on getting a good
TV signal over-the-air; multiple factors contribute to a quality broadcast, including distance
from broadcast towers, geography of the neighborhood, weather, and type of antenna.
Big Media Dominance – Several media giants are the parent corporations of companies
that produce and distribute a majority of US TV programming and products. In addition to
owning the major TV production companies and networks, the conglomerates’ properties
include TV and radio stations, cable TV networks and channels, newspapers, magazines,
and other media. These vertically integrated companies have the financial resources to
produce their own products, the marketing resources to promote them, and the
distribution capability to license them nationally and globally. Under each media giant’s
helm, its major movie studio has joined with its major commercial network to produce and
distribute TV products.
Show runners as Producers – As the number of distribution channels increases, studios
are looking for experienced showrunners (executive producers that also have creative
control of a project) to fill the growing demand for quality content. Showrunners such as
Shonda Rhimes, Tyler Perry, Darren Star, and Dick Wolf have signed lucrative deals with
production companies to create and oversee hit shows, becoming household names in the
Quick Secondary Releases – The time lag is shrinking dramatically between the airing of
first-run TV programs and their release on other media. Secondary releases can occur in
rapid succession, sometimes “near-live,” appearing the same day or a day after the first-run
show. Releases running on various platforms function as cross-promotion of content and
can increase viewer purchases of programs. Secondary releases also work in reverse: some
studies indicate that promotional clips or a TV episode on mobile devices or the internet
can interest non-TV watchers to view the broadcast series on a TV set.
Product Placement – Production companies, typically the major studios, receive revenue
from manufacturers for using their products in TV shows and related releases, a practice
called product placement. Use of product placement on US TV programs has increased in
recent years. Reality shows have the highest levels of placements, appearing an average of
15 minutes of a one-hour episode, according to Kantar Media. Product placements are
becoming more important as digital technologies allow viewers to bypass or speed through
commercials. Newer technology enables digital insertion of branded products after filming
and product placement in subsequent releases.
Consumer-Created Content – TV production and broadcasting companies are concerned
about the popularity and rapid growth of web-based consumer-created videos, also called
user-generated content (UGC). Corporations are monitoring web users’ preferences and
experimenting with ways to capture the UGC audience, using professional content as the
hook. Content attracts audiences, who in turn attract advertisers, which brings revenue to
owners of the website and those holding content ownership rights.
Challenges in Television
Digital Video Recorders – Digital video recorders (DVRs), which have become a staple in
US homes, hurt revenue for broadcasters by allowing TV viewers to easily skip past
commercials. Under the C3 and C7 ratings systems, broadcasters typically get credit only
for shows and ads watched within three or seven days of being saved to a DVR. The
industry is working toward giving networks a longer window of time to monetize DVR
audiences, but innovations in TV audience measurement typically must overcome
numerous technical and contractual issues.
Online Competition – More viewers are using video streaming services, and advertisers
are shifting more of their dollars from TV to the internet as a result. According to Vox,
almost 40% of the world’s advertising took place online in 2018. Internet ad growth has
been increasing in sites such as YouTube. However, due to COVID-19, admarket is expected
to experience almost 17% decline in spending, according to marketing week.
TELEVISION PRODUCTION (First Research, 2020)
Increasing Audience Fragmentation – TV audiences in the US are increasingly
fragmented as a result of the proliferation of new media formats. Traditional TV viewing by
all ages has declined since its peak in the 2009-2010 season, according to Nielsen. More
viewers are cobbling together their TV watching from a variety of sources, including DVRs
and a variety of subscription services. Having more channels creates the potential need for
more programs, but unless a show can command a special audience, it has less value.
Producers spend less on production costs for shows with perceived lower value.
Digital Piracy – Digital technology increases the ease of illegal copying and distribution of
copyrighted TV material, affecting industry revenue. Massive piracy occurs when
consumers download illegal internet copies or buy illegal DVDs. The industry has proposed
various means to counter the threat, including encryption, monitoring devices in
computers, and anti-piracy laws. Some media conglomerates are exploring how to compete
or partner with file sharing and user-generated video sites to stem illegal use of
copyrighted material.
Antitrust Concerns – Joint ventures among the dominant media conglomerates raise
antitrust concerns. Studios reduce financial risk by forming joint ventures, which can result
in partners not introducing products that would compete with other investments, even if
competitor studios are the major investors. The Department of Justice is investigating the
anti-competitive effects of joint ventures. Identifying and preventing antitrust activities
becomes more complicated as multinational companies consolidate and cross-promote TV,
movie, internet, and music properties.
Areas of Opportunity in Television
Program Development – Broadcast networks have found ratings success in recent years
with crime procedurals, sports, and singing competitions. In addition, network shows such
as The Big Bang Theory (CBS), This is US (NBC), and Grey’s Anatomy (ABC) continue to
draw audiences despite strong competition from shows airing on cable networks and
online programming sources such as Netflix. Investing in quality programming is a way for
broadcasters to retain viewers and add new ones, enabling them to maintain or increase ad
Multi-Platform Viewing – Broadcast TV is becoming a significant supplier of content to a
growing number of platforms as consumers spend more time watching video on mobile
devices such as tablets and smartphones, and via internet services such as Hulu and Netflix.
Tablets, in particular, are rapidly becoming a popular way for audiences to access content.
The licensing of content from a network’s library for streaming services is an increasingly
important revenue stream.
Programmatic Advertising – Programmatic advertising presents an alternative to the
current industry standard, in which show ratings determine ad placement. Still in its
infancy, programmatic advertising uses software to automate the buying and selling of
advertising. It is designed to provide marketers with specific audience data, enabling the
delivery of ads targeted to a desired subset of consumers. US spending on programmatic
TV advertising is expected to reach $81 billion before 2021, according to emarketer in a
report posted before the pandemic.
TELEVISION PRODUCTION (First Research, 2020)
Distribution on Multiple Platforms – While some see new media as a threat, demand is
increasing for more entertainment products on a variety of platforms. The DVD market and
the proliferation of cable channels sparked demand for TV products in multiple media.
Broadband enables consumers to view and buy program content online and download to
portable devices, including smartphones. On-demand access enables viewers to decide
when they want to see a pre-recorded program, and interactive TV allows viewers to
communicate with producers. Some TV shows have spawned movies, instead of vice versa.
Licenses for content on a wide variety of platforms are major sources of industry revenue.
Latino Market – Advertisers wanting to reach Latinos, one of the US’s fastest-growing
ethnic population segment, spend heavily when programs attract this audience. Networks
and studios are ramping up production of Spanish-language programs and, in some cases,
all-Spanish TV channels. Also, demand for programming aimed at reaching Hispanic
millennials who speak both English and Spanish is expected to rise. Opportunities exist for
network shows and locally produced news, sports, and public affairs programs.
Digital Efficiencies – Digital production, distribution, and exhibition of TV programs can
bring cost savings and efficiencies compared to film-based processes. Although upfront
investment in new equipment is high, digital processes cut costs over the long run.
Companies that have already converted to digital standards claim a competitive advantage
from shorter time-to-air, a key metric for broadcast customers. Efficiencies result from
being able to film and edit the same digital file that later goes to distributors and
customers. The US government’s mandate to convert to all-digital TV broadcasting in 2009
hastened companies’ move to digital formats and processes.
Licenses for Old Programs – Demand from cable channels has greatly increased the value
of the libraries of old TV movies, programs, and series that many major studios have
produced or acquired. License fees from repeats and long-term syndication provide a
steady source of revenue to compensate for the uncertain and uneven income from new
productions. Major studios have extensive library collections from which they can license
even decades-old comedies anywhere in the world.
Web Marketing – Web marketing techniques are constantly changing to influence group
opinions, which studies say are highly important in internet consumers’ decisions to watch
a show or buy a related product. An increasing number of shows have their own websites.
Many companies use “guerrilla marketing” by planting clips on user-generated video sites
and putting positive comments on popular discussion sites. Companies that find new ways
to get “web-of-mouth” recommendations have at least a short-term advantage from the
The Business of Television Broadcasting and TV Stations
Lesson 2 of 7
Television and Content
In television, “content is king”
“Broadcast television relies on popular content to attract viewers (and advertising dollars),
but the commercial success of programming can be difficult to predict. Content must appeal
to audiences with diverse preferences. Poor ratings can lead to a reduction in pricing and
advertising spending.” (First Research, 2020)
According to one television CEO, “Broadcast television relies on popular content to attract
viewers (and advertising dollars), but the commercial success of programming can be
difficult to predict.” (First Research, 2020)
Live television and talent
Live TV needs great live talent!
“The success of many TV programs depends on the appeal of on-air personalities, such as
news and sports announcers and talk show hosts. Finding and keeping key broadcast
personalities, particularly those able to draw a large audience, challenges management. TV
personalities can be a major expense of producing a particular program. Rather than hire
such employees directly, stations often use talent agencies.” (First Research, 2020)
Getting people to watch
Television stations market to consumers to watch their programming.
“Major types of marketing include advertising on the network’s or station’s own broadcasts
and in other media, including newspapers, magazines, and trade publications. Event
sponsorship is a common promotional strategy. Cross-promoting is common among
stations owned by the same group.”
Television stations compete with other television stations for viewers.
We can only watch one show at a time…or can we? While traditionally, viewers only
watched one screen at a time, now consumers engage in the “second screen” and “third
Television and advertising
Television relies on advertising revenue: “Broadcast TV stations depend heavily on
advertisers for revenue, as delivery is usually free to users. Advertising accounts for about
80% of broadcast TV revenue; national and regional over-the-air advertising accounts for
about 60% of revenue, local ads for about 20%. The TV broadcasting industry competes for
advertiser dollars with a variety of other media, including radio, outdoor display,
newspapers, magazines, direct mail, and websites.” (First Research, 2020)
Television and Technology
TV Stations need to keep up with technological advances
“The rapid evolution of technology requires TV networks and stations to upgrade
equipment periodically, even though upgrades don’t necessarily produce new revenue.
Transmission, filming, and editing equipment and production studios are typical and costly
purchases. The transition from analog signals to digital format is a major capital cost that
many managers finance through debt.” (First Research, 2020)
According to a television station CIO, “Many TV networks and stations have digital assets
that need continuous updating, both in content and technology.” (First Research, 2020)
Television is Regulated by the US Government
The television industry is regulated by the FCC. In our unit on radio, we studied the role of
the FCC in the entertainment industry:
“Because TV stations use transmission frequencies (spectrum), which are a public
resource, the US government regulates some aspects of broadcast operations and
ownership, mainly through the FCC. The FCC issues and renews broadcast licenses, which
require that stations meet certain standards, including serving the “public interest.”
Stations must comply with certain decency standards.” (First Research, 2020)
Streaming services have aggressively pursued new content and paid top dollar for it in
their quest to attract and retain consumers who are increasingly dropping their cable
packages. Netflix Inc., the leader of the streaming video market, invested as much as $15.0
billion in content in 2019. (Jaura, 2020)
Economic Considerations

Television networks have DEMAND for television programming, and television
content is in high demand from consumers!
This industry, like others in the entertainment industry is dependent upon
consumers’ leisure time and discretionary income.
This industry succeeds when the number of consumers with the following
technological capabilities is UP:
o Broadband connections
o Cable subscriptions
Effects of covid-19

Due to nationwide lock downs, TV production has stopped since March 2020,
resulting in TV release delays that are anticipated to contribute to falling
Although there is not a massive drop in demand, TV producers are not able to
produce at full capacity.
Additionally, a rising unemployment rate means a large number of consumers
may be unwilling to spend their money on accessing a wide variety of TV
Consumers are wary of spending their money and this will hurt the revenue
for TV producers as the demand for TV programs could potentially drop as
people look to save their money for essential items.
Fast Facts: Trends in Television Production
To explore further, review the IBISWorld Television Production “Industry Outlook” page
for Television Production in the US –
The Business of Television Program Production
Lesson 3 of 7
How is a television program produced?
Like film production, television production involves
several steps, a lot of people and a lot to do – but in the
case of TV, in a much quicker turnaround!
Read the following article to learn more about how television shows are cast
Next, read through this article to explore job functions backstage for the filming of a
television show –
Finally, review this interview to see some of the differences between working in film vs.
television –
Podcast Listening Assignment
Listen to the following podcast on IndieWire’s “Millions of Screens” podcast. This was
recorded at the beginning of the COVID-19
How do television stations make money?
Television station revenue

Advertising is the primary revenue.

Network to Affiliate payments is the secondary revenue.
Affiliate pays network to belong to the network (for the name)
Network pays affiliate to keep it up and running
Advertisements on TV

Types of advertisements purchased from television stations
National ads
National spot ads
Local spot ads
Spots are more expensive during highly rated shows and/or during prime time.
TV advertising revenue in the United States in 2018,
2019 and 2023
Explore this Statisa chart to see trends in television advertising revenue in the US
Link –
Television networks
Lesson 4 of 7
The Structure of the TV Industry
Network Television
Networks – Large television company – typically owned by a major media company (like
one of the “Big 4”)
Affiliate stations

Affiliates – A station that carries the programming of the larger network, but is not
owned by the network.

Example: WJAR Providence is owned by Sinclair Broadcasting Group and licenses
NBC programming from NBCUniversal.
“O & O” stations

owned-and-operated station (frequently abbreviated as O&O) usually refers to a
television station or radio station that is owned by the network with which it is

For example: in the Boston television market, WBZ-TV carries CBS programming,
and is owned by the CBS network. As such, WBZ-TV is an O&O.
Leading ad supported broadcast and cable networks in
the United States
What is syndication?
1. The licensing of program broadcast rights to radio or television stations. Unlike network
programming, syndicated programs are sold market by market to independent stations or
network affiliates with airtime to fill.
Episodic programs are generally sold in packages containing a number of episodes licensed
for use during a defined period and may or may not limit the number of times each
program is aired. The first syndicated television program was Public Prosecutor (19471948). Perhaps the most successful syndicated programs are I Love Lucy (1951-1957) and
Star Trek (1966-1969).
First-run programs (episodics produced for network broadcast) are often structured to
facilitate later syndication. Law & Order (1990-) is a prime example. The show was first
conceived at a time when hour-long programs were not selling well in syndication, so each
episode was structured to be divisible into two halves — a police investigation followed by
a criminal prosecution — each of which could be broadcast on its own in a halfhour
syndicated time slot. By the time Law & Order premiered, hour-long programs were once
again selling well in syndication so it was never necessary to divide the episodes. Each
episode tells a completely self-contained story. At the time of its creation, conventional
wisdom was that storylines that carried forward from one episode to the other would limit
the program’s appeal in syndication where the episodes are often shown out of order and
where the blocks purchased do not always encompass a complete season.
Syndication Profits
Syndicated show
First-run syndication
Fringe time
Syndication in Television
Read the following excerpt from to learn more about different types of
Types of Syndicated Shows:
What does syndicated show mean? Entertainment producers develop and create television
and radio programming to fulfill listeners’ desire for content around the clock.
Three types of syndicated shows provide local media stations with many options to
supplement their programming content.

First-run syndication. First-run syndicated shows run for the first time on the
syndicated programming’s affiliate stations. Examples of first-run syndications
include: Wheel of Fortune, Wild Kingdom, Judge Judy (and the other “judge” shows),
and Dr. Phil.
Off-network or second-run syndication. These shows ran first on a network or major
radio group. They are then sold to other stations to be aired as reruns. Among these
are all-time favorites including Cheers, Seinfeld, The X-Files, The Big Bang Theory
and Modern Family.
Public broadcast syndication. This programming is produced for distribution on PBS
or other community or public stations. Some PBS shows are classics over
generations like Sesame Street, Antiques Roadshow, Nature and Nova.
(MediaTracks Communications, 2020)

TV Advertising

“Rate card” at each station tells price for each.

Ad revenue = 40-50% of a TV or radio station’s total revenue.
TV Ratings
What does Nielsen Media Research Do?

Determines the ratings
Definition of ratings : A survey of how many people are watching a particular
program at a particular time on television.
Nielsen monitors the following:
o to see who’s watching what when
o to see how many people are watching TV
o demographics, too – age, race, location, gender, etc.
Why do the ratings matter?
Why do they do this?
Decide whether or not a show stays on the air, so TV stations can program appropriately
Set advertising rates – main reason
How do they work?
How Do TV Ratings Work?
The future of your favorite TV shows hinges on their ratings – but what is a rating, and
where does it come from? Whether the topic is popcorn or particle ph…
The Television Industry Today

Jobs –

Entry-Level Positions – PA –
Hollywood on the Hudson ––part-one.html
Inside a TV Studio, Crew & Gear at WTVP : Indy News
November 19, 2012
Griffin reports on auto-tuned William Shatner, how to make a baby fight, constant
aperture DSLR lenses, and an interview with the GoPro CEO. Plus, a tour of …
How does the modern newsroom work in the digital
As part of our investigation into how newsrooms have adapted to the digital, we
interview editors and trade union leaders about how journalism is coping with…
Netflix case study
Lesson 5 of 7

Netflix is subscription-based VOD (video-on-demand) service.

How has Netflix grown so much?


Why has Netflix experienced so much success?
Let’s explore this company a bit further.
What is Netflix?
“Netflix is a streaming service that offers a wide variety of award-winning TV shows,
movies, anime, documentaries, and more on thousands of internet-connected devices.
You can watch as much as you want, whenever you want without a single commercial – all
for one low monthly price. There’s always something new to discover and new TV shows
and movies are added every week!”
(Netflix, 2020)
Netflix: Company Profile
“Netflix is the world’s leading streaming entertainment service with 183 million paid
memberships in over 190 countries enjoying TV series, documentaries and feature films
across a wide variety of genres and languages. Members can watch as much as they want,
anytime, anywhere, on any internet-connected screen. Members can play, pause and
resume watching, all without commercials or commitments.” (Netflix, 2020)
Number of Netflix paying streaming subscribers in the
United States from 3rd quarter 2011 to 1st quarter 2020
Click to view the Statisa chart of paid Netflix subscribers in the

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