physical geology 3 work sheets with cross word puzzles


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Lesson 10: Running Water
1. Rivers are returning water that ________________________ over the oceans, but
____________________________ over the land.
2. The #1 erosional agent on earth is ____________________________ water.
3. Discharge is the amount of water moving past a given point in a given amount of time. Discharge is
measured in cfs, which stands for _______________ _______________ per __________________.
4. Discharge is calculated by multiplying the stream _______________ x the stream _______________ x
the stream ______________________.
5. The river with the greatest discharge in the world is the _____________________________.
6. The river with the greatest discharge in North America is the _____________________________.
7. If a river were 100’ wide and the average depth was 10’, what would be the cross-sectional area of the
stream at that location? _________________ square feet (ft2).
8. If the average velocity at that same location were 3 fps (feet per second), what would be the calculated
discharge? __________________ cfs
9. The source area where stream waters originate is called the _____________________ of the stream.
10. Where two streams or rivers join is called a ___________________________.
11. Smaller streams that flow into larger streams are referred to as ____________________________.
12. The end of a stream or river is called its _______________________.
13. The ______________________ of a stream is typically steeper in the headwaters region.
14. Water flows faster in a channel as _____________________ increases.
15. Water flows __________________ (faster or slower) in a deep, semi-circular channel than in a shallow,
wide channel.
16. Water flows __________________ (faster or slower) in a smooth channel than in a rocky channel.
17. Rivers can erode by either deepening the channel, a process called _________________________, or
widening the channel, a process called ________________________ erosion.
18. A river will tend to downcut as long as it is above its _______________ level.
19. For a river that flows into the sea, its _____________________ base level is sea level.
20. A river that is actively downcutting typically has a deep ___________-shaped valley.
21. When gravel gets caught up in whirlpools it can cause downcutting that results in the formation of
22. When a river is a ___________ level, the only erosion that can take place is lateral erosion.
23. A stream that is making broad loops through a floodplain is known as a _______________________
24. Because the water is flowing faster, lateral erosion will most likely occur on the ________________
(outside or inside) of a bend.
25. Because lateral erosion is most common on the outside of a bend, it is referred to as the _________
26. Because water slows down on the inside of a bend, it will cause sediment to settle out in a deposit
known as a __________________ bar.
27. If a meander loop gets cut off, it will most likely turn into an ______________________ lake.
28. Natural ____________________ form along the sides of river channels from sediment settling out during
periods of flooding.
29. If a meandering stream becomes ___________________________, it may be able to downcut into its
channel forming entrenched or incised meanders.
30. __________________ is sediment moved by a river that stays in (close) contact with the bed in the
31. Some sands and gravels may get kicked up into the water and settle back down as they are carried
downstream. This jumping fashion of motion is referred to as _________________________.
32. Bedload that travels strictly by rolling or sliding is called the ____________________ load.
33. Silts and clays are generally so small they do not settle out of most flowing water. This material is known
as the __________________________ load, and it is what makes the water muddy.
34. _____________________ load is invisible and stays in the water, even when the water is not flowing.
35. A drainage ______________, or watershed, is an area where the runoff goes into a certain stream.
36. Drainage basins are always separated by _____________________.
37. The Yellowstone River is a tributary of the _____________________ River, which is a tributary of the
_____________________________ River that flows into the Gulf of Mexico.
38. The Yellowstone Drainage Basin covers a portion of the _____________________ Drainage Basin, which
covers a portion of the _____________________________ Drainage Basin.
39. The ______________________ Divide roughly follows the west side of the Mississippi River Drainage
Basin along the crest of the Rocky Mountains, and separates runoff that drains into the Pacific from
runoff that drains into the Atlantic.
40. Texas is a river-rich state, with most rivers draining directly into the __________ of _____________.
41. Fort Worth and Dallas are in the ___________________ River Drainage Basin.
42. In the diagram to the right, color all 1st order
streams red, 2nd order streams blue, 3rd
order streams yellow, and 4th order streams
green. Draw the approximate location of the
divides around the 3rd order streams. The
drainage pattern shown for the streams in
this image is _______________________.
43. Streams flowing off a volcano would typically show a _________________ drainage pattern.
44. The drainage pattern of a stream system that often develops on fractured rocks is called
45. The drainage pattern of a stream system that often developed in regions with parallel hills and valleys is
called ______________________.
46. The most common drainage pattern develops on flat lying sedimentary rocks and hard crystalline rock
like granite. This tree-like drainage pattern is called _______________________________.
47. Draw the 4 main drainage patterns in the boxes below. Use arrows to show stream flow direction.
48. In areas where streams high in bedload slow down, the bedload will settle out and choke the channel.
This causes the stream to split into smaller channels that eventually reconnect to other smaller
channels. Streams that split and reconnect like this are called __________________ streams.
49. Alluvium is stream deposited sediment. When alluvium builds up a semi-circular shaped deposit at the
mouth of a channel on land, the deposit is referred to as an ______________________ fan.
50. Alluvium from streams that empty into a body of water can build out the land forming a _________.
51. Streams on a delta often break into smaller streams called _______________________ channels.
52. ________________ gaps are where rivers cut through hard, resistant rock units.
53. When streams are nearby, one stream may intersect with another and divert the water from it. This is
known as stream ___________________. This may happen through lateral erosion or
___________________________ erosion.
54. Flooding occurs when water spills out of its channel onto neighboring land. The probability an area will
be flooded largely depends on how high the land is above the channel. An area that is deemed a 100year floodplain has a ________% probability of flooding each year. A 50-year floodplain has a
___________% probability of flooding each year, and a 20-year floodplain has a __________%
probability of flooding each year.
55. Urbanization _____________________ flooding in the urban area because it increases the rate of runoff
into area streams.
56. Dams can serve many functions, but one function is to prevent flooding ______________________.
57. Man-made levees can prevent flooding in the immediate area, but promote flooding
58. Channelization allows water to move through an area faster thereby preventing flooding in the
immediate area, but it also promote flooding _______________________.
Lesson 10 (Running Water)
5 the lowest point a streamcan
erode down to (2 words)
6 lake formed in a cutoff meander
7 deposit of sediment that forms on
the inside of a meander (2 words)
8 this type of erosion typically
results in a deep V-shaped valley
10 land area that contributes water
to a stream(2 words)
12 a streamthat winds back and
forth is said to be doing this
13 the process of moving along the
streamchannel in jumps and
16 these are the most common and
destructive of all geologic hazards
18 these may formwhen a
meandering steamis rejuvinated
(2 words)
23 streamwith interwoven channels
24 channels that branch out on a
25 deposit that forms at the mouth
of a river that enters a body of
27 this aspect of a streamdirectly
affects the stream’s ability to
erode and transport materials
28 source region of a stream(plural)
29 the elevation drop of the stream
over a given distance
30 this part of a stream’s load is
comprised of silt and clay and
makes the water look muddy
1 a semi-circular shaped deposit of
sediment that forms at the mouth
of a mountain valley (2 words)
2 drainage pattern that would be
associated with a volcanic cone
3 rounded depressions in a riverbed
caused by the abrasion of
sediment caught in eddies
4 where a superposed or
antecedent streamcuts through
resistant rock (2 words)
9 this part of a stream’s load is
generally in contact with the
bottomof the channel (2 words)
11 a steamwithout any tributaries
flowing into it (2 words)
14 streamformed fromthe joining of
two second order streams (2
15 this river has the largest discharge
in North America
16 the part of a streamvalley that is
inundated during a flood
17 these flood deposits build up
along the river banks (2 words)
19 this “tree-like” drainage pattern is
the most common of all drainage
20 the outside bank of a meander (2
21 this part of a stream’s load is
22 the amount of water flowing past
a point in a given amount of time
26 this river has the greatest
discharge in the world
WORD BANK: Alluvialfan,
amazon, baselevel, bedload,
braided, cutbank, delta, dendritic,
discharge, dissolved,
distributaries, downcutting,
drainagebasin, firstorder,
floodplain, floods, gradient,
headwaters, incisedmeanders,
meandering, mississippi,
naturallevees, oxbow, pointbar,
potholes, radial, saltation,
suspended, thirdorder, velocity,
Lesson 12: Glaciers
1. Glaciers are large masses of ___________ that from on ____________ from the recrystallization of
2. For a glacier to form there must be more snowfall in the _________________ season than what melts in
the __________________ season.
3. Glaciers flow under the influence of _______________________.
4. At a depth of about 50 meters the weight of the ice allows the ice below that depth to flow. This zone of
flow is often referred to as the ______________________ zone.
5. The upper 50 meters of ice is more brittle, often resulting in crevasses forming. This is the zone of
6. Glaciers form where more snow falls than melts. This is the zone of ______________________.
7. Ice flows from the zone of accumulation into a harsher climate at lower elevations or latitudes where the
snow melt exceeds snowfall. This is known as the zone of ________________________.
8. Ice bergs form by glaciers ________________ into bodies of water.
9. Glaciers can pull rocks loose and get them to flow with the ice. This is known as glacial
10. The flow of glacially plucked stones can grind against the bedrock in a process known as _______________.
11. Abrasion from grit generally results in a smooth surface to the bedrock which is called glacial ___________.
12. Abrasion can also result in scratches in the bedrock, which are called glacial ________________________.
13. Finely ground up rock from abrasion in often suspended in glacial meltwater giving the water a milky
appearance. This suspended load is known as rock _________________.
14. The largest glaciers that flow out in multiple directions are known as ice _______________.
15. The largest glacier on earth is found on Antarctica and contains approximately ______% of all glacial ice.
16. The second largest glacier on earth is the ice sheet located on ____________________.
17. Since large ice sheets often cause crustal subsidence, when the ice melts, the result is crustal
18. Alpine glaciers are also called __________________ glaciers because they flow through previously river cut
valleys in mountainous terrain.
19. Valley glaciers carve V-shaped river valleys into broad _________-shaped valleys.
20. Ice may float, but because around 80% of the ice is below water’s level, it has the power to erode below sea
level when a valley glacier flows into the sea. When the glacier melts, the glacial trough is filled to sea level
in what is called a ______________________.
21. Because valley glaciers cannot turn on a dime, they may erode “spurs” sticking out in the valley. This
eroded spurs are called ________________________ spurs.
22. When three or more valley glaciers flow out from a mountain peak, the glacial erosion creates a ________.
23. Sharp mountain ridges produced by valley glacial erosion are referred to as __________________.
24. Bowl-shaped depressions with steep walls on three sides are commonplace at the head of a valley glacier.
These depressions are called _____________________.
25. A small valley glacier cannot cut down nearly as deep as a large valley glacier, therefore when a smaller
valley glacier joins a much larger valley glacier, the base of the smaller valley is much higher than the base
of the larger valley. The result in often a waterfall flowing from what is known as a _____________ valley.
26. Through erosion or deposition, valley glaciers often leave depressions in the base of the valley. These
depressions often fill with water and form a string of lakes which are known as ______________________
27. A roche mountonnee is a glaciated hill that is eroded by __________________ on the gentle slope of the
upstream side, and eroded by ___________________ on the steep slope of the downstream side.
28. When ice is being made in the zone of ___________________________ at the same rate ice is melting in
the zone of _______________________, the oversize of the glacier stays the same.
29. If ice is being made faster than it is melting, the snout (also called end or toe) of the glacier will
_________________, but if the ice is melting faster than ice is being made, the snout of the glacier will
30. Any rock deposited directly by glacial ice is referred to as _____________.
31. Deposits of till are called _________________________.
32. End _____________________ form at the snout of the glacier when the glacier budget is in equilibrium.
33. The furthest extent of the glacier is generally marked by the _______________________ end moraine.
34. If a glacier retreats and finds a new point of equilibrium, a ____________________ end moraine may form.
35. ___________________ moraines generally form along the sides of valley glaciers.
36. When two valley glaciers converge the lateral moraines at the point of conversion will get streaked out into
the glacier in what is known as a ___________________ moraine.
37. Glacial ____________________ are “out of place” stones that could only have been deposited by a glacier.
38. ___________________ are mounds of till that have been streaked out into a teardrop shaped hill.
39. A glacier flows over the _________________ (steep or gentle) side of a drumlin, then over the other side.
40. Blankets of sediment deposited from glacial meltwater are referred to as stratified _______________.
41. If stratified drift builds up around large blocks of ice that have calved off a retreating glacier, the
depression left behind when the block of ice melts is known as a _______________.
42. If the depression holds water, it is called a ___________________ lake.
43. _______________ are hills of stratified drift that accumulates in a stream, often flowing under the glacial.
44. The last great ice age started about 10 million years ago, and ended around 10 thousand years ago. That
time is known as the __________________________ Epoch.
45. Because the climate was vastly different during the Pleistocene, many basin out west were filled with water
in what are known as _________________________ (rain-fed) lakes.
46. According to data showing rising sea levels, the global warming that ended the last great ice age lasted for
approximately ____________ thousand years.
47. The _________________________ Theory attempts to tie ice ages to astronomical conditions.
Lesson 12 (Glaciers)
blocks of stagnant ice, often forming small
1 region above the snowline (firn limit) (3 words) 29 mouth of tributary valley located high above
6 produced by abrasion, this finely ground rock
the main valley floor due to deep downcutting
gives glacial meltwater a milky color. (2 words)
by main trunk glacier (2 words)
7 scratches in the bedrock fromgravel in base of
10 sharp ridge produced fromglacial erosion
11 deep fracture on the surface of a glacier
2 drowned glaciated valley usually found at
15 type of glacier that flows down mountain
higher latitudes where valley glaciers flowed all
the way to the sea
20 seaward extensions of a glacier e.g. Ross
3 till that builds up along the sides of a valley
21 this grinding of rocks at the base of a glacier
glacier (2 words)
produces rock flour
4 sharp peak produced by glacial erosion
22 bowl-shaped depression cut into rock at the
5 ridges built up by meltwater streams generally
head of a valley glacier
under a mass of stagnant ice
24 the outermost end moraine
8 till deposited by a retreating glacier (2 words)
25 epoch of last great ice age
9 asymmetrical mounds of reworked till that
26 flowing mass of ice that forms fromthe
occur in clusters
recrystallization of snow on land
12 when basal slippage allows a glacier to move
27 till that builds up at the snout of a stagnant
much faster than normal
glacier (2 words)
13 moraine formed fromthe coalescing of two
28 basins formed as outwash builds up around
lateral moraines
14 region of a glacier below the snowline (firn
limit) (3 words)
16 any end moraine except the terminal moraine
17 glaciers that radiate out in all directions (2
words) e.g. Antarctica
18 boulders of glacial origin that are different
fromlocal bedrock
19 abrasion causes this smooth surface on
bedrock and boulders (2 words)
23 this occurs when meltwater freezes and pries
rocks loose and incorporates theminto the
WORD BANK: Abrasion, alpine, arete, cirque,
crevass, drumlins, endmoraine, erratics, eskers,
fiord, glacialpolish, glacier, groundmoraine,
hangingvalley, horn, icesheets, iceshelves,
kettles, lateralmoraine, medialmoraine,
pleistocene, plucking, recessional, rockflour,
striations, surge, terminal,
zoneofaccumulation, zoneofwastage.
Lesson 11: Groundwater
1. Groundwater is the largest supply of readily-available _______________ water.
2. The #1 use of groundwater is for ______________________________.
3. Groundwater is rain and snowmelt that _______________________ into the ground.
4. The upper limit of saturation of groundwater is called the water ______________.
5. In an unconfined aquifer, the water table is typically a subdued replica of the ______________.
6. Groundwater flows (generally slowly) form where the water table is _______________ to where the
water table is _____________.
7. Storage capacity in rocks is called ____________________________.
8. The ability to transmit a fluid is called __________________________________.
9. Aquifers are rock units that can be mined for their water because they have both good
______________________ and ____________________________.
10. An aquitard or aquiclude transmits water very slowly therefore it is said to be
11. While most sands and limestones make good ___________________, shale is almost always an
_______________________ because it does not readily transmit fluids.
12. The major aquifer in the DFW region is the _______________________.
13. _______________ flow out of the ground when the water table intersects the earth’s surface.
14. If present, a ______________________ water table may develop on top of an __________________
above the main water table.
15. Because the water table can fluctuate in elevation, in dry times ___________ may quit flowing.
16. Hot rocks in the shallow subsurface can heat up the water resulting in ________ springs.
17. Most hot springs are located in the ________________ portion of the U.S.
18. A national park famous for its hot springs is _______________________________, located in the state
of _____________________________.
19. Terraces composed of _________________________ may develop from hot springs.
20. _________________ are where hot steam and water shoot out of the ground periodically.
21. A famous geyser that erupts every hour or so in Yellowstone is called ____________________.
22. As water is being pumped from a well, it often creates a temporary lowering of the water table around
the well, known as a cone of ______________________________.
23. If water is pressurized in an aquifer, it is referred to as ___________________ water, and a well drilled
into the aquifer is called an ____________________ well.
24. List the three requirements for water to become pressurized in an aquifer.
25. The level to which water is pressurized is called the ______________________ surface.
26. Due to frictional resistance restricting the flow of water, the pressure surface typically will
________________ in elevation as you move away from the recharge basin.
27. If the pressure surface is higher than the land in an area, a well drilled will result in water shooting out of
the ground in what is known as a ____________________ artesian well.
28. If the pressure surface is lower than the land in an area, a well drilled will result in water rising up to the
pressure surface, but the water will still have to be _______________ to get it to the surface.
29. ____________ topography commonly develops in limestone regions with a high water table.
30. The collapsing in of cavern roofs results in the formation of a ___________________.
31. In karst topography streams often lose their water by flowing into the underground. A stream that does
this is called a _____________________________ stream.
32. Dripstones and flowstones are generally composed of the rock called ____________________.
33. Fragile hollow tubes of dripstone that develop on cavern ceilings are called __________ straws.
34. Soda straws can turn into icicle-looking rocks called __________________________________.
35. Water that drips onto the cavern floor can build a rock mound called a ___________________.
36. If stalagmites and stalactites grow into each other, they create a ________________________.
37. When cavern ceilings in a region have all collapsed in, the result is steep hills of limestone called karst
38. The High Plains Aquifer, also known as the ______________________ Aquifer, is one of the largest
aquifers in the world running through the Panhandle of Texas all the way to ________________ Dakota.
39. If groundwater is being replenished by nature at the same rate man is withdrawing the water, the water
_______________ will stay about the same elevation and the groundwater is considered a
_________________________ resource. However, if man is pumping water out faster than it is being
replenished, the water _______________ will lower and the aquifer may even run dry. In this situation,
the water is considered a ___________________________ resource.
40. Due to overpumping, the water in most of the southern portion of the Ogallala is a
____________________________ resource.
41. Any harsh, toxic chemicals sprayed or poured onto the ground can _______________________ the
groundwater below.
42. In coastal regions, the lowering of the water table by just 1’ can cause the salt water below the fresh
water to rise ________’.
43. When sediments and water fill into a basin together, the sediment may never compact until the water is
pumped out. This sediment compaction can result in _______________________ of the land, such as in
the San Joaquin Valley of California.
Lesson 11 (Groundwater)
2 upper surface of a localized saturated zone isolated from the regional water table by
an aquitard (3 words)
4 these speleothems grow up from the floor of a cavern
10 areas susceptible to groundwater contamination because much of man’s trash ends
up there
11 these periodically erupt with steam and hot ground water
15 a common way of disposing of sewage in rural areas (2 words)
18 chemically-precipitated porous limestone found near many springs
22 cave formations (flowstone and dripstone)
23 this results from drawdown at a well site (3 words)
24 type of rock most common in karst regions
26 type of groundwater contamination from overpumping in coastal areas
27 surface depressions common in karst regions
28 a possible problem from overpumping such as in the San Joaquin Valley
1 type of well formed when the ground elevation is lower than the pressure surface (2
2 the ability to transmit fluids
3 karst structures common in southern China
5 rock type of most dripstone formations
6 these grow down from the ceiling of cavern
7 topography that develops on limestone when the water table is shallow
8 famous aquifer ranging from South Dakota to Texas (2 words)
9 underground area dissolved out by groundwater
12 top of the zone of saturation (2 words)
13 this sedimentary rock is a common aquifer
14 level to which a pressurized aquifer will rise to when tapped by a well (2 words)
16 water in a pressurized aquifer
17 name for rock unit that restricts the flow of groundwater, also known as an aquitard
19 permeable strata that transmits groundwater freely (commonly sands or gravels)
20 storage capacity within rock or sediment
21 natural outflow of groundwater when the water table intersects Earth’s surface
25 this sedimentary rock is a common aquitard
WORD BANK: Aquiclude, aquifer, artesian, caverns, coneofdepression,
flowingartesian, geysers, highplains, karst, landfills, limestone, perchedwatertable,
permeability, porosity, pressuresurface, saltwater, sandstone, septictanks, shale,
sinkholes, speleothems, spring, stalactites, stalagmites, subsidence, towers,
travertine, tufa, watertable.

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