RTM 404 San Diego State University Culture Tourism Questions Paper


When responding to the questions, you are REQUIRED to address the specific concepts covered in the course thus far. In your answers, highlight/underline the specific course concepts that you have addressed from the PowerPoint presentations and videos. Question #1 Among the Toraja people of Sulawesi, Indonesia, not all was going well with tourism. In fact, resentment became so great over the way in which sacred funeral ceremonies were being adapted to meet tourists’ needs that in the late 1980s, a number of Toraja communities simply refused to accept tourists. The result is that host communities find culture and traditions under threat from the purchasing power of the tourism industry. Neither are tourists better off from the cultural viewpoint. Instead of getting rich and authentic cultural insights and experiences, tourists get staged authenticity; instead of getting exotic culture, they get kitsch. Question: Within the context of the narrative presented above, discuss 4 cultural differences (Scollon and Scollon, 1995) that may have prompted the Toraja communities to resist the threats posed by tourism. Your answer must be a minimum of 700 words and maximum of 1000 words. Question #1 In many Muslim countries, strict standards exist regarding the appearance and behavior of Muslim women, who must carefully cover themselves in public. Tourists in these countries often disregard or are unaware of these standards, ignoring the prevalent dress code, appearing half-dressed (by local standards) in revealing shorts, skirts or even bikinis, sunbathing topless at the beach or consuming large quantities of alcohol openly. Besides creating ill-will, this kind of behavior can be an incentive for locals not to respect their own traditions and religion anymore, leading to tensions within the local community. The same types of culture clashes happen in conservative Christian communities in Polynesia, the Caribbean and the Mediterranean. Question: Using the contact hypothesis, describe the potential outcomes of the tourist-host contact indicated above. Be sure to discuss the outcomes in terms of tourist-host attitudes, interactions, perceptions, values, and communication. Youranswer must be a minimum of 700 words and maximum of 1000 words.
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Defining Culture:
elements, dimensions & interactions
Culture & Tourism

Culture impacts all aspects of tourism

Social interactions
Policy, planning, development,
management, and marketing
Important to understand
the meaning and definition
of culture
Concept of Culture

Complex, multidimensional phenomenon

Lack of central definition

Over 160 definitions
Different views about meaning

Difficult to define
Depending on discipline
Sociology, psychology, anthropology,
Range of definitions/views

All-inclusive to narrow
Definitions of Culture

Culture is a theory, abstraction, label

Large category of phenomena
Multifaceted nature
Classic definition

Inclusive, complex whole
According to Tylor (1924):
Culture is that complex whole which includes
knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, customs, and
any other capabilities and habits acquired by man
as a member of society
Human Origin of Culture
Humans have created culture
⚫ Culture is a design for living

Human Origin of Culture

Herskovits (1948): Culture is the humanmade part of the environment
Benedict (1944): Culture holds human
groups together
Harris and Moran (1979): Culture is a way of
life of a particular group of people
Goodenough (1961): Culture can be viewed
as standards for deciding what is…what can
be…what one feels about it…what to do
about it ….how to go about doing it
Behavioral Anthropology
Culture is about human behavior
⚫ Cultural behavior is learned, not

Shared by people and learned by people
who enter the society
Cultural behavior can
be learned and/or
Behavioral Anthropology

Spradley (1972): Culture manifests itself in
observable patterns of behavior associated
with particular groups of people
Potter (1989): Culture determines human
Nisbett (1970): Culture is indispensable to any
understanding of human behavior
Parsons (1951): Culture guides behavior in
Harris (1983): Culture indicates a pattern of
social interaction
Kim and Gudykunst (1988): Culture guides
behavior and interprets others’ behavior

Culture is the basis of reasons and
rules for certain behavior

How others will behave and why

Radcliffe-Brown (1957): Culture is a set of
rules for fitting human beings into a social
Schneider (1972): Culture gives directions for
the actors and how actors should play their
parts on the stage
Malinowski (1939): Culture is a means
through which human needs are met
Dodd et al. (1990): Culture is the means
through which values are communicated
Behaviorism and Functionalism

Culture and behavior are inseparable

Culture dictates how we behave
Culture determines conditions and
circumstances under which behaviors
Interprets and predicts behavior
Culture is the foundation of interaction

Interactional behavior depends upon
cultural background of interactants
Criticisms of Behaviorism and
Different observers may perceive and
interpret the same behavior differently
⚫ Behavior may change with time and
place, across and within individuals
⚫ Discrepancies between what people
say, would do, and actually do
⚫ Interpretation of behavior may be
influenced by stereotypes

Cognitive Anthropology
Culture is cognitive knowledge,
classifications and categories, existing
in the minds of people
⚫ Cultural experiences impose mental

Cognitive Anthropology

Hofstede (1991): Culture is the
collective programming of the mind,
which distinguishes the members of
one group or category from another

Keesing (1974): Culture is a system of
knowledge shaped by the human brain;
rules are created by a culturally
patterned mind
Criticisms of Cognitive
Concept of culture limited to knowledge
⚫ Excludes people and their emotions
⚫ Peoples’ experiences are shaped by
culturally and socially defined meanings
and emotions


Culture is a system of symbols and
meanings that influence experiences
Geertz (1973): Symbols help to
communicate and develop attitudes
toward life; meanings help to
understand others’ behavior
⚫ Foster (1962): Symbols allow for
interaction in a socially accepted
manner that is understood by the

Criticism of Symbolism
Symbols do not create culture
⚫ Symbols are created by a culturally
patterned mind


Urriola (1989): Culture is the sum of
people’s perceptions of themselves and
of the world

Samovar at al. (1981): The similarity in
people’s perceptions indicates existence
of similar cultures and sharing and
understanding of meaning
Subjective Culture

Cultural characteristic way of perceiving
the environment

Values, attitudes, beliefs, expectations
Role perceptions, stereotypes
Affects interpersonal
Subjective Culture

Samovar et al. (1981): Members of a similar
subjective culture have similar values, conform
to similar rules and norms, develop similar
perceptions, attitudes and stereotypes, use
common language, or participate in similar

Triandis (1972): Similarities in subjective
culture lead to frequent interaction among
members of similar cultural groups. When the
similar behavior patterns obtained in one
culture differ from the similar patterns
obtained in another, we infer the existence of
some differences in subjective culture
Culture as Differences
Between People

Potter (1989): Culture can be referred to as
differences between groups of people who do
things differently and perceive the world
differently. These differences indicate the
existence of different cultures

Triandis (1972): If there were no differences,
there would be no cultures

Landis and Brislin (1983): Cultural differences
can cause differences in interactional
behaviors and misunderstanding in their
interpretations, and thus may create conflict.
Culture as Information and
Culture can be viewed as information
and a communication system
⚫ Differences in language create different
ways of expressing beliefs, values and

Culture as Information and
Sapir (1964): Language is the symbolic
guide to culture and facilitates man’s
perceptions of the world
⚫ Samovar et al. (1981): Language
transmits values, beliefs, perceptions,

Cultural Perspectives

Culture can be viewed as:

Objects, artifacts, food, attire, architecture
(material elements)
Cultural beliefs and values, attitudes, and
perceptions (non-material, ideology)
Material + non-material
Tourist & Host Culture

Tourist culture

Tourists bring on vacation (touristic)
Own culture, country’s culture (national)
Host culture

Culture of host
Tourism Culture

Behavior of all participants
Distinct from routine and everyday culture
Tourists in different sate of mind; play mode
Hosts offer hospitality services
Tourists and hosts retain residue of own
culture (residual)
Tourism culture = tourist + host + residual
Defining Culture:
elements, dimensions & interactions
Characteristics of Culture
According to Herbig (1998), the following
provide characteristics for culture:
⚫ Functional: Each culture has a function to
perform; its purpose is to provide guidelines
for behavior of a group of people
⚫ Social phenomenon: Human beings create
culture; culture results from human
interaction and is unique to human society
⚫ Perspective: Culture prescribes rules of
social behavior
Characteristics of Culture

Learned: Culture is not inherited and/or
received by succession; it is learned from
other members of the society
Arbitrary: Cultural behaviors and practices
are subject to judgment; certain behaviors
are acceptable in one culture and not
acceptable in other cultures
Value laden: Culture provides values and
tells people what is right and wrong
Facilitates communication: Culture facilitates
verbal and nonverbal communication
Characteristics of Culture

Adaptive/dynamic: Culture is constantly
changing to adjust to new situations and
environment; it changes as society changes
and develops
Long term: Culture was accumulated by
human beings in the course of time and is
the sum of acquired experience and
Satisfies needs: Culture helps to satisfy the
needs of the members of a society by
offering direction and guidance
Every dominant culture is made up of
several subcultures

Geographic region
Economic or social class
Genetic or biological similarity among
people (Lustig & Koester, 1993)
⚫ Group of people descended from same
⚫ Sociohistorical in nature
⚫ Racial categories evolve over time
⚫ Different racial categories in different

Groups of people sharing language,
history and religion (Lustig & Koester,
⚫ Identify with a common nation or
cultural system
⚫ Ethnic differences – color, language,
religion, other common attributes
⚫ Shared descent or heritage of a group
of people

Passed on to children
Geographical Region
Differences within countries
⚫ Similarities between countries
⚫ Results from differences

Economic/Social Class
Socio-economic standing
⚫ Differences in income and wealth

Subculture and Dominant Culture

Characteristic patterns of behavior
Unique patterns of values, expectations,
and interactions
Norms and rules (how to behave, interact
and think within the subculture)
Small/large groups
Members of many different groups at
same time
Subculture and Dominant Culture

Subculture community differs from parent
Subculture and dominant culture share
dominant cultural patterns
Dominant culture directs forms of public
social interaction
Subculture indicates forms of private social
Members of dominant culture may belong to
various subcultures

Different backgrounds
May not relate appropriately
Cultural Differences
Scollon & Scollon (1995): Aspects significant for
the understanding of cultural differences:
⚫ Ideology, history and worldview (beliefs,
values, religion)
⚫ Socialization: education, enculturation,
acculturation, theories of person and learning
⚫ Forms of discourse: functions of language
and non-verbal communication
⚫ Face systems and social organizations:
kinship, self, ingroup-outgroup, gemeinschaft
Cultural Differences in
Verbal: differences in language features
⚫ Phonology (sound)
⚫ Morphology (structure, meaning units)
⚫ Semantics (word meanings)
⚫ Syntactics (word sequencing and
⚫ Pragmatics (effects of language on
Cultural Differences in
Non-verbal: differences in body language, use
of space/time/physical distance
⚫ Kinesics (body language): Emblems, illustrators,
affect displays, regulators, adaptors
⚫ Proxemics (space): Personal space, territoriality
⚫ Touch: Meanings, context
⚫ Time: Orientations, systems, perceptions, use
⚫ Voice: Pace, levels, consistency
⚫ Other: Chemical, dermal, physical, artifactual
Cultural Differences in Social
Kim and Gudykunst (1988):

Social roles
Social status/class/hierarchy
Attitudes towards human nature
Relationships between individuals
Cultural Differences in Rules of
Social Behavior
Argyle (1967), Triandis (1972):

Interpersonal relations

definition and importance; establishment and
Interaction patterns
Greetings, self-presentations, conversations,
Volume, depth, intensity
Frankness, dissatisfaction, criticism
Cultural Differences in Service

Differences in understanding concept of

Interaction patterns between hosts and
Perceptions of proper guests’ treatment
Differences between US,
Japanese, and Chinese Hosts

Chinese hosts tend to ignore guest

Escorted guests, tight itinerary; little opportunity
for private exploration
Viewed by Americans as intrusion/lack of trust
Japanese hosts cater to guest affairs in

Anticipate guests’ needs and fulfill beyond needs
Regarded by Americans as uncomfortable
Cultural Dimensions/Elements
Vary in their degree of importance
⚫ Vary in their impact on social behavior

Cultural Dimensions/Elements
Hall and Hall (1987):
⚫ Human nature (agreements)
⚫ Activity Orientation
⚫ Human Relationships (amount of space,
possessions, friendship,
⚫ Relation to Time (past/future)
⚫ Space Orientation (public/private)
Cultural Dimensions/Elements
Hofstede (1980):
⚫ Power Distance (PD): Development of interpersonal
relationships in hierarchical society
⚫ Uncertainty Avoidance (UA): Degree to which
people feel threatened by ambiguous situations
⚫ Individualism-Collectivism (IC): Degree to which
individual goals and needs take primacy over those
of group
⚫ Masculinity-Femininity (MF): ….value of work and
achievement versus quality of life and harmony
⚫ Confucian Work Dynamism: ….Chinese values apply
in country of residence
Cultural Dimensions/Elements
Trompenaar (1993):
⚫ Human nature (universalism/particularism)
⚫ Modes of categorizing people or objects
⚫ Relation to nature (internal/external,
inner/outer directed)
⚫ Activity orientation (achievement/ascription,

People’s views of actions and self-expression
through activities
Treatment of people/objects based on qualities
ascribed to them
Cultural Dimensions/Elements
Trompenaar (1993):
⚫ Human relationships

equality/hierarchy, IC and
communitarianism, affective/neutral
degree to which people seek gratification
Relation to time (sequential/synchronic,
Cultural Dimensions/Elements
Maznevski (1994):
⚫ Human nature (good/evil, changeable)
⚫ Relation to nature
⚫ Activity orientation (doing/being,
⚫ Human relationships
(individual/collective, hierarchical)
Intercultural Interaction
All interactions are intercultural
⚫ Degree of interculturalness depends on
degree of heterogeneity of interactants

Cultural backgrounds and
Underlying assumption

Greater commonality between individuals
belonging to same culture
Lesser commonality between individuals
belonging to different cultures
Intercultural Interaction

Interactions occur in wide variety of

Members of different dominant cultures
with extreme cultural differences

Western and Asian
Members of subcultures with differing
values and perceptions
American and British
Intercultural Interaction

Degree of cultural difference depends on
comparison of cultural dissimilarity
Minimum-maximum cultural differences
among cultures and subcultures

Minimum – more in common

Same religion, language
Divergent beliefs, values, attitudes
Middle/Maximum – less in common
Important to analyze cultural differences in
Identify which differences have detrimental effects
Cultural Differences in Tourism
Patterns of recreation
⚫ Amount of leisure time among nations
⚫ Patterns of vacation travel
⚫ Travel preferences and benefits
⚫ Perceptions/stereotype/image
⚫ Tour package, food and foodservice
⚫ Service quality

Culture and Tourism Marketing
Differences in needs, perceptions and
cultural values of international hosts
and guests
⚫ Adequacy of product and satisfaction
regarded differently by international
and domestic tourists
⚫ International tourism marketers need
to understand expectations of
international tourists

Revise, adjust product offerings
Culture and Tourism Marketing

Tourism product should not be

Address market from cultural point of view
prior to marketing
Understand cultural factors and their
influence on behavior
Develop strategies to target particular
Social Contact
Concepts, determinants, and
Concept and Definitions
 Complex concept

Multitude of different experiences
Multitude of different situations
 Work,

home, travel
Personal; occurs between a minimum of 2
 Interpersonal

Encounter with others
 Positive,
negative or superficial
Levels of Social Contact
 Co-presence

Minimum level of interaction
Signaling awareness of presence and accessibility
 Focused

Higher level of interaction
Gathering and cooperating to sustain single focus
of attention
 Co-presence may or may not lead to focused
Analysis of Social Situations
Features of social interactions (Argyle et al., 1981):
 Goals

Purposes that direct and motivate
 Rules

Shared beliefs that regulate and generate actions
 Roles

Duties and rights of social position of interactants
 Repertoire of elements

Sum of verbal and non-verbal behavior
Analysis of Social Situations
 Sequences of behavior
◼ Specific order of actions for effective behavior
 Concepts
◼ Understanding of elements for behavior and goal
 Environmental setting
◼ Encounter setting (spaces, boundaries)
 Language
◼ Speech and variations
 Difficulties and skills
◼ Perceptual, memory, motor, and linguistic skills
Social Contact in Tourism
 Tourist-host
 Tourist-tourist
 Tourist-potential tourist
 Tourist-provider contacts
Definition of Tourist
Range of meanings
 Degree of institutionalization, type of
encounter, form of travel, traveler status
 Operational

Temporary visitor
Arriving at holiday destination
Stays for minimum of 24 hrs, maximum of
12 months
Any purpose other than employment
Definition of (Professional) Host
 Resident of visited destination
 Employed in tourism industry
 Tourist service-providers
Setting of Tourist-Host Contact
 Transportation
 Lodging
 Dining
 Sightseeing
 Shopping
 Entertainment
 Observations
Forms of Tourist-Host Contact
 Purchasing of goods and services
 Side-by-side presence/exchange
 Face to face exchange of information
Tourist-Host Cultural Contact
 Face to face contact between tourists
and hosts
 Different cultural backgrounds
 Travel from home culture to host culture
 Serving tourists from foreign culture
Tourist-Host Cultural Contact
 Two types of contact

Intercultural contact
 Interaction

between two different cultures
Cross-cultural contact
 Interaction
between more than two cultural
Contact Hypothesis
Social contact between individuals from
different cultural groups results in
 Positive outcomes

Mutual appreciation, understanding,
respect, tolerance, liking (Bochner, 1982)
Positive attitudes (Fisher and Price, 1991)
Reduces ethnic prejudices, stereotypes,
and racial tension (Cohen, 1971)
Cultural enrichment, improved social
interactions (UNESCO, 1976; Vogt, 1977)
Contact Hypothesis
Social contact between individuals from
different cultural groups results in
 Negative outcomes

Negative attitudes
Negative stereotypes, prejudices, tensions,
hostility (Bochner, 1982)
Ethnocentrism (Triandis and Vassilou,
Clashes of values, conflict, and
disharmonies (Hall, 1984)
Contact Hypothesis
Social contact between individuals from different
cultural groups results in
 Negative outcomes

Exclusion from mutual activities (Asar, 1952)
Formality of contact, social barriers, personal
friendship barriers (Taft, 1977)
Superficial relationships (Watson and Lippitt, 1955)
Negative feelings, inferiority, self-rejection
(Bettelheim, 1943)
Contact Hypothesis
Social contact between individuals from
different cultural groups results in
 Negative outcomes

Resentment, irritation, frustration, and
stress (Taft, 1977)
Language barriers (Arjona, 1956),
communication problems (Argyle et al.,
Loss of sense of security and emotional
well-being (Lynch, 1960)
Contact Hypothesis
Social contact between individuals from different
cultural groups results in
 Negative outcomes

Differences in subjective cultures
Social contact becomes a threatening experience
Participants feel like outsiders
Inhibits social interaction, future contact lost (Kamal
and Maruyama, 1990)
Negative feelings increase with frequent contact
(Anant, 1971)
Contact Hypothesis in Tourism
 Tourism’s potential for fostering understanding
between nations and peace
 ‘Guest’ treatment, cultural pride among hosts,
greater socialization

Friendly, respectful, interested tourists
 Contact and knowledge of each other seen as
 Enhancement of tourist and host attitudes
 Positive attitude (change) towards hosts

Greater intensity and longer contact/interaction time
Higher satisfaction levels
Contact Hypothesis in Tourism
 Positive attitudes not possible due to
superficial nature of tourist-host contact
 Distorted and superficial perceptions

Perceptions of tourist based on symbols
Perceptions of host based on status and
outcomes of commercial exchange
Contact Hypothesis in Tourism
 Negative change of attitudes

Minor change in positive direction
Majority of change in negative direction
Extra tension added as a result of
economic encounter
Confirmation of positive or negative
Contact Hypothesis in Tourism
 Pressure to develop stereotypes

‘Passing through’ character of tourists
 Clash of values
◼ Liberal values of Western tourists and
domestic social rules
◼ Reversal of gender roles

Tourist isolation, separation, and
Stress, victimization and harassment
Contact Hypothesis in Tourism
 Communication problems

Differences in language, gesture, space,
time, and status
Safety and health hazards
Disappointment, discouragement and
Tourist-Host Contact
 Advantages outweigh disadvantages

Break up isolation, create awareness among cultural
Opportunity to learn and fundamental intercultural
 Less developed countries

Negative effect of contact is increased
Tourists perceived as aggressive and insensitive
Exploitation, assault, victimization, social problems
Social Contact
Concepts, determinants, and
Determinants of Tourist-Host
Factors influencing tourist-host contact

Temporal and spatial
Temporal and Spatial
 Nature of contact/social situation
◼ Brief, temporary
◼ Exploitable
◼ Asymmetric, unbalanced (roles, expectations,
socioeconomic status)
◼ Superficial, formal
◼ Non-intensive, non-spontaneous
◼ Competitive
 Contact opportunity
◼ Different opportunities, different chances for
◼ Little opportunity for deep integration
Temporal and Spatial
 Place

Tourist ghettos offer most opportunities for social
Most encounters with professional hosts
Intensive contact most likely among tourists
 Interpersonal attraction

Perceived similarity in attitudes, beliefs, views
 Attributes and social motivators

Willingness to understand and welcome each other
Motivation to interact with other nationalities
Temporal and Spatial
 Touristic orientation

Relationship between tourists and hosts
Working hosts/tourists, regular hosts/tourists
 Rules of social behavior

Guidelines for social interactions
 Participant/interactant status

Perceived status, level of cooperation
Temporal and Spatial
 Costs and benefits

Psychological and material
Rewarding or costly
 Resources exchanged

Money, goods, services, status, information, love
Reciprocating with similar resource
Value of resource based on cultural beliefs
Hospitality reciprocated by hospitality (Polynesia)
Cultural Factors
Cultural values
 Familiarity with stimuli for social contact
 South Pacific social contact

investment in human relationships
future reciprocation of obligation
financial gains are of lesser value
 Western social contact
◼ profit and financial gain
◼ commercialized, decreased non-economic
◼ reciprocation not as important
Cultural Factors
 Positive attitudes

More contact, social relations
 Negative attitudes
◼ Reservation, suspicion, dissatisfaction

Positive, negative
Cultural familiarity, similarity

Social relations usually develop between similar
Similarity promotes contact
 Effectiveness of communication

Moderate to high similarity results in
effective communication
High dissimilarity results in ineffective
communication, poor social contact
Other Factors
 Types of tourists and hosts
 Types of travel arrangements
 Role of cultural broker/gatekeeper
 Stage of tourism development

# of tourists, hosts
 Knowledge about each other
 Types of tourism
Intercultural Tourist-Host Contact
Degree of interculturalness
 Extent of similarity and differences
 Similar individual – least interculturalness
 Dissimilar individuals – most interculturalness
 Dissimilarity/difference ranges from small to
 Increased degree of difference, increased level
of interculturalness
Types of Intercultural Encounters
in Tourism
 Individuals of similar cultural background
 Individuals of different cultural backgrounds
(small differences, supplementary)

Not separated by cultural differences
Similar backgrounds
Share cultural commonalities
Accurately understand each other
Low interculturalness
Most effective social contact
Types of Intercultural Encounters
in Tourism
 Individuals of different cultural backgrounds
(large differences, incompatible)

Separated by large cultural differences
Few cultural commonalities
More difficult and less efficient
Less communication
High interculturalness
Chances for misunderstanding, friction, inhibited
Interaction Difficulties in Tourism
Most common (Pearce, 1982)
 Interpersonal communication and behavior

Language fluency and usage, expression of
attitudes and emotions
 Non-verbal signals

Expressions/gestures, eye contact, touch, posture
 Rules and patterns of interpersonal interaction

Greetings, self-disclosure, requests
Culture Shock
 Experienced by an individual while
encountering another culture
 Inability to cope effectively in new cultural

Unfamiliar stimuli overload
Incomprehensible ways of life, doing things
Culture Shock
 Loss of equilibrium due to loss of familiar
signs and symbols because of encountering
differences in an alien culture (Craig, 1979)
 Lack of familiar cues about how to behave
in a new culture (Oberg, 1960)
 Reaction to unsuccessful attempts to adjust
to new surroundings and people (Lundstedt,
Symptoms of Culture Shock
Two types of symptoms (Jandt, 1998)
 Physical symptoms

Health, safety, cleanliness stress
Fear of physical contact with locals
Alcohol and drug abuse
 Psychological symptoms
◼ Insomnia, fatigue
◼ Isolation, loneliness
◼ Disorientation, nervousness
◼ Frustration, anger, cynicism
◼ Home-sickness
Culture Shock in Tourism
 Culture shock effects intercultural interaction

Less effective communication
Misunderstandings, misinterpretations of emotions
Greater cultural difference, greater culture shock
 Stressful encounters with professional hosts
 Host population confronted with new values and
 Greater shock with limited prior exposure to
other cultures
Types of Culture Shock
 Role shock
◼ Lack of knowledge about rules of behavior
 Language shock
◼ Inability to communicate properly
 Culture fatigue
◼ Constant adjustment to new culture
 Transition shock
◼ Negative reaction to adjustment
 Re-entry shock
◼ Emotional/physiological difficulties upon returning
Stages of Tourism Culture Shock
The U curve (Oberg, 1960; Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 1963)
Four stages
 Honeymoon

initial fascination, optimism
 Hostility

disappointment, negative attitudes
increased contact with fellow travelers
 Adaptation

increased ability to cope with new environment
 Recovery

adjustment, acceptance and enjoyment of new
Stages of Tourism Culture Shock
The W curve (Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 1963;
Trifonovitch, 1977)
Six stages
 Honeymoon
 Hostility
 Humor

Tourists adjust to host culture
Appreciate new culture
Interact with locals
Learn local language
Joke in foreign language
Spend less time with home travelers
Stages of Tourism Culture Shock
The W curve…
 At home

Wanting to return home
Regret leaving new culture
Happy about returning home
 Reverse culture shock

Re-entry shock
Feel home culture has changed
Feel home culture does not match reality
Lack of familiar cues at home
Confusion, alienation, depression
 Readjustment

Cope with home environment
Social Contact
Concepts, determinants, and
Intensity of Feelings/Duration of
Culture Shock
 Degree of cultural differences between
tourists and hosts

> differences, > shock
Limited to one or two stages
Prolonged stage
All stages in short time
 Cultural knowledge of individual

Better coping
Intensity of Feelings/Duration of
Culture Shock
 Social skills of individual

Ability to adjust
Better coping
 # of host community friends
 Type of tourist
 Type of travel arrangements

Short, long duration
Mass tourism – limited exposure
Packaged tours – bubble effect
Shortcoming of Culture shock
 U-curve and W-curve not empirically

Does not address traveler types
Measurement of Tourist-Host
 Difficult due to cultural meanings of
measurement variables

 Several measurable variables
◼ Allport (1954):
 area of contact
 social atmosphere
 participant status
 cultural background
Measurement of Tourist-Host

Cook (1962):
 Contact
situation characteristics
 Contact participant attitudes
 Interpersonal interaction expectations
 Influence of rules and norms

Chadwick-Jones (1962):
of people encountered
 Participant status
Measurement of Tourist-Host

Triandis and Vassiliou (1967):
 Nationalities

Goldsen et al (1956):
 Degree

of intimacy
Vassiliou et al (1972):
of friends made
Social Contact Measurements
 Hall’s Social Distance Zones (1966)

Four zones: intimate, personal, social, and
Dependent on cultural backgrounds
> Social distance between Australians and
< Social distance between Australians and Europeans Social Contact Measurements  Vassiliou et al.’s Measures (1972) ◼ Maximum contact  several ◼ intimate friends Some contact  no intimate friends  few close acquaintances  many remote acquaintances ◼ No contact  No friends/acquaintances Social Contact Measurements  Gudykunst’s Measures (1979) ◼ Cross-cultural interaction index  Amount and type of social interaction  Level of difficulty in interacting ◼ Potential for cross-cultural interaction index  Proportion of free time spent with people from different cultures  Degree of difficulty in interacting  # of hours spent Social Contact Measurements  Feather’s Measures (1980) ◼ Direct  Invitation to host homes  Invitation to host parties  Invitation to play sports  Invitation to share recreation facilities  Mixed at school  # of good friends among hosts ◼ Indirect  Knowledge and use of host language  Perceived social distance Social Contact Measurements  Black and Mendenhall’s Measures (1989) ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Frequency Importance Nature (familiarity/novelty) Direction of interaction (one-way vs. two-ways) Type of interaction (routine vs. unique) Form of interaction (face-to-face vs. mail) Duration (few vs. many years) Format (formal vs. informal) Social Contact Measurements  Kamal and Maruyama’s Measures (1990) ◼ Direct  Time spent with hosts  Number of host friends  Interaction preferences  # of parties attended ◼ Indirect  Free time spent on discretion  Length of stay  Amount of previous contact with cultures  Difficulties of establishing friendships  Opinion about treating tourists as equals Tourist-Host Contact Studies  Attitudes, behaviors, values toward tourism  Social and cultural impacts of tourism  Views of hosts and tourists regarding each other  Crime and tourism  Communication and understanding between tourists and      hosts Disappearance of local culture and dialect due to tourism Prostitution and tourism (status) Host coping behavior and avoidance of tourists Host resentment towards tourists due to economic gap Changes on tourist and host perceptions Purchase answer to see full attachment Tags: Toraja people remote region forms of discourse tourist infiltration focused interaction User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

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