San Diego State University Tourism Foreign Stereotyping Questions


When responding to the questions, students are REQUIRED to address the specific concepts covered in the course thus far. In your answers, highlight/underline the specific course concepts that you have addressed from the PowerPoint presentations and videos provided in the modules.Why and how do tourists develop and/or resort to stereotypes while traveling away from their home environment? Why are stereotypes often inaccurate? Why are stereotypes helpful? Why are stereotypes dangerous? How can we modify and/or eliminate stereotypes? Your answer must be a minimum of 700 words and maximum of 1000 wordsIf you were the President of the San Diego Tourism Authority, how would you go about evaluating satisfaction levels of tourists visiting the region? Which technique of satisfaction measurement would be the most adequate? Describe this technique? Why should international tourist complaints not always be used in assessing their vacation satisfaction? NOTE: This question is not asking you to discuss any type of surveys; while answering this question/subquestions, you will need to apply the specific course concepts covered under the topic of Satisfaction. Your answer must be a minimum of 700 words and maximum of 1000 words.

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Concept, interrelationships, dimensions, and
Concept of Values
Values are…
⚫ Core of culture (Kroeber and Kluckhohn, 1952)
⚫ World views (Redfield, 1953)
⚫ System and core of meaning (Kluckhohn, 1956)
⚫ Specific preferences and beliefs about preferences
(Baier, 1969)
⚫ Standards and criteria (Rokeach, 1973)
⚫ Attributes of individuals (Barton, 1969)
⚫ Collectives (Kluckhohn, 1951)
Concept of Values
Values are…
⚫ General principles of life (Kluckhohn, 1951)
➢ Measure of social order
⚫ Specific mode of conduct or end-state existence
(Rokeach, 1973)
➢ Determinants of social behavior
⚫ Play an important role in evaluation process
➢ Judging, praising, condemning
➢ Affects attributes, perceptions, needs and
Value System

Values ordered in a priority of relative importance
Criteria for evaluating behavior and applying
Social guidelines setting cultural norms
➢ Behavior, decision standards
➢ Self, others, society, nature, God
Value System

Relatively stable over time
➢ Rearranged due to cultural changes
➢ Changes depend on value intensity
May cause personal and interpersonal conflict
➢ Affects achievement of successful interaction
Value Interrelationships
Values and behavior
➢ Superior
to behavior
➢ Cultural determinants of behavior
➢ Prescribe behavior (important, avoid)
➢ Guide and rank behavior
Value Interrelationships
Values and rules and norms
➢ Superior
to rules and norms
➢ Personal and internal
➢ Determines acceptance/rejection of norms
➢ Set of rules for behavior
Value Interrelationships
Values, attitudes, and perceptions
➢ Superior
to attitudes and perceptions
➢ Develop content of attitudes and
➢ Determine attitudes, perceptions
➢ Standards as opposed to attitudes
Value Interrelationships

Values, attitudes, and perceptions
➢ Values:
single beliefs regarding general
➢ Attitudes: number of beliefs regarding
specific situations
➢ Fewer values than attitudes
➢ More stable than attitudes
➢ Better predictor of behavior than attitudes
Types of Values

Instrumental (means)
➢ Preferable
modes/means of conduct
➢ Honesty, ambition, independence
➢ Social or personal
➢ Morality, competency
➢ Between 60-72
Types of Values

Terminal (ends)
➢ Goals
or end-state existence
➢ Salvation, peace, freedom, comfortable life
➢ Social or personal
➢ Around 18
Classification of Values
Depends on cultural residence/background of
⚫ Primary


Top of value hierarchy
Worth sacrifice of human life or not
Important, but nor worth sacrifice

Bottom of value hierarchy
Hospitality to guests
Measurement of Values

Direct measures
➢ Survey
➢ Respondents rank/rate importance of
➢ Likert scales

Indirect measures
➢ Second-party
➢ Respondents describe values
➢ Questions, observations, document
analyses, lifestyle analyses
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Human Nature)

Description of each other and objects and rules for
Universalism (US, Canada)
➢ Universal, general rules
➢ Standardized patterns
➢ Interaction with others less dependent
on social situations
Particularism (Japan, China, South Korea)
➢ Particular rules
➢ Situation-specific patterns and interactions
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Human Nature)
⚫ Innate nature of human character
⚫ Good, evil, or mixture
➢ Western societies (good)
➢ Eastern societies (good or bad)
⚫ Changeable/mutable, unchangeable/immutable
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Human Nature)
⚫ High-context cultures
➢ Spoken

agreement between members
Low-context cultures
➢ Written,
legally binding agreement
between members
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Human Nature)
Uncertainty Avoidance

Extent to which society feels threatened by uncertain
situations and tries to avoid them
High UA societies (Greece, Spain, Portugal, Japan)

Uncertainty is a threat, must be fought
Avoid conflict, disapprove competition, not tolerate
deviant behavior
Emotional restraint, loyalty, group decisions and
Nationalistic, xenophobic, conservatist
Pessimistic about future
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Human Nature)

Uncertainty Avoidance
Low UA societies (Ireland, Great Britain, India,
Denmark, Sweden)
➢ Tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty
➢ New ideas are non-threatening
➢ Focus on advancement, individualism, competition
➢ Conflict is natural
➢ Accept foreigners with different ideas
➢ Optimistic about future
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Relation to Nature)
Subjugation, harmony, mastery

Subjugated to nature, nothing can be done to
control it
Live in harmony and worship nature (Eastern,
Native American)
Control and overcome all natural forces (Western)
Inner- versus outer-directed

External motives to guide behavior (US, Britain,

Nature can be controlled
Internal motives (Japan, China, Korea)

Go along with nature
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Activity Orientation)

People’s assessment of each other/objects
Ascription: inherent qualities (India, China,
Japan, France)
➢ Gender, family heritage, race, ethnicity
➢ Behaviors predicted based on inherent
Achievement: performance and measurable
results (US, Britain)
➢ Behaviors predicted based on efforts,
occupational status
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Activity Orientation)
⚫ Categorization of people/objects
⚫ Diffuseness: holistic details, patterns,
structures, theories
➢ Japan,

Thailand, China
Specificity: specific details, aspects
➢ Canada,
Australia, US, UK
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Activity Orientation)
Doing, Being, Being-Becoming
⚫ Doing orientation: activity, tasks, goals, competition

Activities are tangible and externally measured
Tasks are economically driven and task oriented
Western cultures
Being or being-becoming orientation: pleasures and
spontaneity as expression of human personality

Spiritual life more important than material
Passivity, social harmony at the expense
of efficiency
Emotional and people oriented
Eastern cultures
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Activity Orientation)
➢ Monochronic:
only one activity done at a
➢ Polychronic: engagement in several
activities at same time
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Activity Orientation)
⚫ Masculinity: assertiveness, money/material

Performance, growth, excellence
Work integrated with private life
Differentiated sex-roles
Japan, Austria, Italy, Germany
Feminity: people-oriented societies

Quality of life, welfare of others, sympathy for
Equal sex roles
Sweden, Norway, Finland, Portugal
Concept, interrelationships, dimensions, and
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
Affectivity-Affective Neutrality
⚫ Nature of gratification sought by people
⚫ Emotional/non-emotional emphasis in
behavior and decision-making
➢ Affectivity:

immediate gratification, emotion-
Latin, Latin American cultures
➢ Affective
Neutrality: self-restraint, information
and facts-driven

US, Australia, UK
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
⚫ Nature of goal of social interaction
➢ Instrumental:
social interactions are goal-
driven (US)
➢ Expressive: social interactions valued for
friendship (Latin America)
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
⚫ Enhancement of individuals, welfare of
➢ Self:
emphasis on individual goals, selfsupport and initiative

Self-oriented and individualist
US, UK, Canada
➢ Collective:
well-being of others
(work and social circle)

China, Korea, Malaysia
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
⚫ Most differentiating between Eastern
and Western cultures
➢ Individualistic:
individual goals take
primacy over group goals

Perception as individuals rather than group
Efforts to maximize personal benefits/status
Competition, self-image important
Western cultures (US)
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
➢ Collateral:

individual is part of social order
Laterally extended relationships
Group consensus, agreement with group
Strong individual-group relationships
Group harmony, concern for social welfare
Polite, causing embarrassment is inappropriate
Emotional closeness to family and friends
Chinese, Vietnamese, Filipino
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
➢ Linear:
societal hierarchy, obedience,
loyalty to authority

Duty, responsibility, submission to group
Submission to elders, unquestioning
compliance, respect
Filial piety, authoritarian leadership
Eastern religious values (Hinduism,
Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
➢ Formal:
social relations guided by rules of
social etiquette

Address using official/appropriate titles (Japan,
➢ Informal:

social relations based on
Informal interactions and communications (US,
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
➢ Egalitarian:
equality/evenness in
interpersonal relationships

Focus on independence
Minimal obligations
US, Australia, UK
➢ Hierarchical:
emphasis on status
differences between individuals

Dependence on social status, formality
Japan, China
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
➢ Direct:
directness and openness in

Europe, US
➢ Indirect:
indirectness, ambiguity, third
party intermediaries

Japan, Korea, Thailand, China
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
⚫ Similar to Self-orientation
➢ Self:

emphasis on individual self
Children encouraged independence at early age
Innovation, change
US, Europe
➢ Group:

individual cannot exist without
People dependency at work, school, home
Group loyalty, elderly advice
Asian cultures
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
Amount of Space
⚫ Rules of space, space distances are culturespecific

Intimate (loving)
Personal (friends)
Social (impersonal, gatherings)
Public (ceremonies, concerts)
Colder climates, larger distance (Scandinavia)
Warmer climates, close distance
(Mediterranean, Latin America)
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
⚫ Individualists: people motivated by
possessions, position, power
⚫ Collectivists: people motivated by
social harmony, group loyalty
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
Power Distance

Response to unequal distribution of power in
➢ High PD: people are not equal, everyone has
rightful place
▪ Servitude is antecedent to freedom
▪ Obedience, conformity, authority
▪ Mexico, Arab countries, Indonesia,
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
Power Distance
➢ Low
PD: inequality should be minimized
Independence, non-repressive, non-autocratic
▪ Equality is antecedent to freedom
▪ Competition
▪ Scandinavia, New Zealand,
UK, US, Australia

Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
Individualism/Collectivism (IC)
⚫ Emphasis on needs
➢ Highly
Individualistic: emphasis on
individual goals and needs

Importance given to self-actualization,
freedom, autonomy, self-decisions, pleasure,
financial security
Self-oriented, right to private life and opinion
US, Australia, Canada, Europe
Comparison of Cultural Components
(Human Relationships)
Individualism/Collectivism (IC)
➢ Highly
Collectivistic: emphasis on group
goals and needs

Importance given to group-decisions,
consensus, cooperation
We-orientation, tight social and family ties
Strong distinction between in-group and outgroup
Expectations of absolute loyalty within in-group
Latin America, Indonesia, Pakistan
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Relation to Time)
⚫ Future: time is a scarce resource
➢ Future
time oriented
➢ Effective use of time
➢ Change is valued
➢ Western societies (e.g., US)
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Relation to Time)
⚫ Past: tradition oriented
➢ Ancestor
worship and strong family
➢ Time perceived as circular, non-linear
➢ Less importance given to time schedules
and punctuality
➢ Eastern societies (e.g., China, Japan)
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Relation to Time)
⚫ Present: moment has high significance
➢ Little
attention given to past, history
➢ Future is vague/unknown
➢ ‘Now’ matters most
➢ Mexico, Latin America
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Relation to Time)
⚫ Monochronic: task, time schedules and

Time is limited, finite resource
Time used in structured, sequential,
Synchronized, compartmentalized activities
Time dependent human relations
Punctuality and appointment schedules
US, UK, Canada, Germany, Scandinavia
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Relation to Time)
⚫ Polychronic: human relations and family

Time is unlimited and expandable, cyclical
Lateness and interruptions are excusable
Task completion rather than time schedules
Time can be sacrificed
Effective for human relationship building and
Southern Europe, Latin America, Middle-East
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Context)
Low Context-High Context

Level of information included in communication
➢ Low Context: most information in verbal
▪ Messages have clear meanings
▪ Explicit direct verbal
▪ Explicit signs, instructions,
procedures for behaviors
▪ Western cultures
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Context)
Low Context-High Context
➢ High
Context: most information in nonverbal contextual message

Meanings depend upon context, circumstances
Implicit, indirect non-verbal communication
Direct questions considered rude
Others expected to sense rules of behavior
Eastern cultures
Comparison of Cultural
Components (Other Factors)
Space Orientation (public, private,
intimate, personal, social)
⚫ Information Flow (high context, low
⚫ Language (high context, low context)

Concepts, dimensions, measurement
Expectations and Experiences
Satisfaction is…
▪ Comparison of expectations with experiences
on terms of performance
▪ Satisfaction: expectations fulfilled by
▪ Dissatisfaction: expectations not fulfilled by
Relativity of Satisfaction
▪ Tourists satisfied even when experiences do
not match expectations
▪ Three levels of positive satisfaction
▪ High
▪ Medium
▪ Low
▪ Satisfaction depends on values or beliefs
Expectations versus
Performance, Perceptions
▪ Experiences may be inadequate
predictors of satisfaction
▪ Satisfactions derives from differences
between expectations and perceptions of
Input versus Output of Social
▪ Comparison of perceived input-output
(gains) in social exchange
▪ Dissatisfaction: balance is inequitable
▪ Tourists receive less for what they paid
▪ Satisfaction depends on how much
people value result of exchange
Expectations-Environment Fit
▪ Tourist’s expectations and ability of
environment/hosts to meet them
▪ Optimal fit occurs when host environment
reflects visitors’ values
Internal-External Attribution
▪ Satisfaction is positive or negative
disconfirmation of expectations
▪ Negative
▪ Positive
▪ Disconfirmed
expectation is
the result of
▪ External
▪ Internal
Satisfaction is a Multifaceted
▪ Total satisfaction consists of a number of
independent components
▪ Important to identify satisfaction with separate
components of holiday experience
▪ Satisfaction consists of two dimensions
▪ Instrumental
▪ Expressive
▪ Analysis of tourist satisfaction should include
both dimensions
Concept of Service and Service
Any activity or benefit one party can offer to another
that is essentially intangible and does not result in
the ownership of anything. Production may or may
not be tied to a physical product (Kotler et al.,
▪ Services: intangibility, perishability, instantaneous
▪ Service encounter: moment of interaction,
▪ Service quality is delivered through several service
Dimensions of Service Quality
▪ Three main dimensions
▪ Physical
▪ Corporate
▪ Interactive
▪ Interactive is central to service
▪ Other dimensions
▪ Technical
▪ Functional
▪ Procedural
▪ Convivial
▪ Service quality is determined by subjective customer
perception of service
SERVQUAL Model of Service
▪ Incorporates concept of consumer
behavior into service quality
▪ Incorporates specific dimensions used by
consumers and providers to assess and
evaluate service performance
▪ Based on gaps in service quality between
perceptions and expectations
SERVQUAL Model of Service
▪ Five gaps impact consumer’s evaluation of
service quality (Parasuraman et al., 1985)
▪ Management perceptions of consumer perceptions
and expectations
▪ Management perceptions of consumer expectations
and service quality specifications
▪ Service quality specifications and service delivery
▪ Service delivery and service quality communicated
externally to customers
▪ Consumer perceptions of service and consumer
expectations from service
SERVQUAL Model of Service
▪ Five criteria of service quality typically used by
▪ Tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance,
▪ Evaluation of service quality based on service
outcome and service delivery process
▪ Service quality dimensions apply more to the
delivery process
Criticisms of SERVQUAL
▪ Service quality only assessed in terms of
perception-expectation gaps
▪ High focus on delivery process rather
than actual outcome
▪ Dimensions may vary across industries
and situations
Service Quality versus
▪ Service quality: attributes of service
▪ Satisfaction: psychological outcome from
▪ Service quality depends on customer
perception of service
▪ Discrepancy between service expectations
(ES) and service perceptions (SP)
▪ ES

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Tourism Stereotyping

tourism expectations

unfair perception of a country

tourism industry during covid

foreign experiences

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