University of California Irvine Link Between Cinema and Decoloniality Essay


The things you need to do are:
Reflection essay on your progress during the quarter (500 words). Consider the aspects: writing skill, new critical knowledge, new knowledge about film, things that were more eye-opening. 
One essay rewrite(choose from essay 1-3). Include brief paragraph explaining why you decided to rewrite that essay.
Three Writing exercises of the quarter.

Writing exercise 1

Description and Rationale:
Although we usually need multiple views in order to have a nuanced grasp of a film, oftentimes the impressions of the first screening will deeply shape our ideas and subsequent experiences with that film. Here we are going to practice thinking, writing, and fixating these first impressions. The goal of this exercise is to practice writing and consolidating your impressions right after a screening, and thus create a firm ground for future writing.
Usually, writing that invests in sensory details tends to be more convincing because it creates a deeper impression on the reader. We tend to remember and relate first to our immediate senses. Paying attention to the sensorial aspects of a film beyond its narrative not only engages the reader, but it also produces a richer text that is more “respectful” to the aesthetic complexity of a film.
In this exercise we will focus on this: the sensorial aspects of the film–color, light, atmosphere, sound, gestures, textures. Whatever stands out to you.
After watching K’Bela (Yasmin Thayná, 2015) please, answer the questions below.

Write here three visual elements of the film that particularly caught your attention. Answer with short sentences or words.
Choose five keywords that you think apply to the film.
How would you describe the film to someone that has not seen it? Write a short paragraph.
Describe one image/scene that, in your opinion, summarizes the film.

Writing exercise 2
Description and Rationale
This exercise is a practice on connecting conceptual ideas with a film. You will write a paragraph in which you will explain the decolonial aspects of K’bela. In other words, how and why K’bela can be considered a good example of a decolonial film.
The exercise: you will continue the paragraph from the opening sentences written below. Make sure to write a concise paragraph that states the relation between the film K’bela and the concept of “decolonial,” introducing examples that would be further developed and analyzed in the subsequent paragraphs. Consider how the film shows the body and which bodies are shown. Please, feel free to use your answers to exercise 1. You can also use this exercise as a base to your discussion board post of this week.
The Brazilian film K’bela (Yasmin Thayná, 2015) provides us with a good example of the “decolonial” in film. As María Lugones argues,……..
Writing Exercise 3: explaining Galt
Description and Rationale
This exercise is a practice of reading and writing. Here are three quotes from Rosalind Galt’s “Pretty as Troublesome Image” that contain core elements of her argument. This chapter is the introduction of an academic book, and was written in a dense conceptual style. The exercise here consists in two main tasks:

To grasp the gist of the quotes: the central concepts, the examples, the arguments
To rewrite the paragraph in a less academic style, conveying the central argument and concepts

Focus on the idea and change the wording. Think of strategies that might make the sentences more straightforward, such as cutting out jargon and too many references. You will be explaining the ideas to a “general audience” (imagine someone that is not an FMS major, or someone that is not in the School of Humanities).

“The production of the pretty as a space of rhetorical exclusion depends heavily on its connection to the wrong kinds of bodies. Plato’s cosmetics instantiate a connection of the untrustworthy image with the deceptive woman that has dogged the history of Western art, and the devices and tricks of the cinematic pretty oppose an overly fussy feminine mise-en scène to the grandeur of the masculine exterior. Moreover, the classical binary of Attic authority versus overly flowery Asiatic rhetoric links decorative style both to the non-Western and, in the binary’s modern forms, to effeminacy and sexual perversion. The politics of the pretty is therefore always engaged in a critique of gender, sexuality, and race as these terms have been imagined and codified through visual culture.” (20)
“The bodily politics of the pretty, as entirely formal constructions of aesthetic value, are usefully distinct from identitarian categories: the persistent denigration of decorative images in the languages of femininity, perversion, or orientalism enables us to think beyond a politics of representation and to see histories of bodily exclusion instead as underwriting the structuring principles of cinematic value.” (20 – 21)
“Madame Satã, for example, narrates the life of João Francisco dos Santos, a 1930s Afro-Brazilian pop cultural icon who was a famous criminal, drag performer, and queer outlaw. The film’s use of lush cinematography and staging for João’s erotic and criminal lives as well as its presentation of his “exotic” drag performances as “Madame Satã” or “the Negress of the Bulacoche” tie a recuperative queer politics to a sometimes uncomfortable aestheticization of sexual and racial stereotypes. And yet this excessive stylishness is quite clearly at the heart of the film’s historical analysis. The burnished tones of a visual schema that aesthetically marks dark skin, bright costume, and nostalgic period lighting are as much a performative articulation as is the protagonist’s drag act.” (21)

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Writing on Film and Media
April 18, 2021
Production of The Pretty
Throughout history, the cinema has often rejected pretty images considering that they are
not provocative choices. In contrast, the cinema has appreciated and adapted simplicity, ugliness,
and austerity, claiming that they are the more provocative, political, and proper cinematic choice.
However, authors such as Galt condemn the exclusion of pretty from the film culture claiming,
its masculinity is the leading cause of the rejection of the feminine nature of pretty (Galt).
According to Galt, a pretty scene incorporates lush visuality, painterly framing, and arabesque
camera movement styles. Therefore, the pretty scenes are necessary to convey distinct political
and sexual identities in the cinematic universe. However, the western aesthetic bias against the
feminine has led to the inheritance of a patriarchal and colonial bias that treats decorative style as
foreign or sexually perverse. Madam Sata and K’bela are examples of films that face rejection by
the cinematic world due to pretty aesthetics.
According to Galt, the connection of pretty scenes to the wrong kind of bodies has
contributed to the exclusionary nature of the pretty (Galt). However, the exclusion of the pretty
also arises from its connection to gender, race, and sexuality. Various films often struggle to
depict aesthetically pretty scenes due to their opposition from the cinematic world, which is
majorly masculine. While most creators avoid the use of pretty scenes, some films embrace the
visually lush and appealing scene in their films despite the likelihood of being rejected by the
cinemas. The use of pretty scenes by the producers can also be seen as part of the resistance to
colonization which dehumanized several people globally. Some of the films that display pretty
scenes are K’bela and Madam Sata. The incorporation of the scenes has, however, brought about
a myriad of issues. However, as noted by Galt, the main issue underlying the rejection of the
scenes is their connection to the female gender and propagation of homosexuality and
involvement with the black race.
Madam Sata is a Brazilian film about a crossdresser who becomes the country’s icon and
manages to create attention among the prominent homosexuals’ population in the country
(Aïnouz). Madam Sata, however, is his stage name, and the character is known João with a long
history as a prisoner and a violent person. The main character faces various attacks due to his
sexuality, race, and gender he displays to the public; the film is evidence of society’s rejection of
the pretty due to underlying issues such as its connection to various races, individuals (Terrefe).
The film also uses lush visuals, which are considered pretty in their erotic depiction of João’s
criminal and erotic life. However, Galt also acknowledges that the lush visual scenes add to the
color of the film. Therefore, without the lush scenes considered feminine, the film wouldn’t be as
appealing in its depiction of madam Sata.
Another film that also faces various critics due to its use of lush visual scenes is K’bela.
K’bela is a film about black women in brazil (Thayna). The film is therefore written, directed,
and produced by black women. However, the critics judge it excessively due to its incorporation
of lush scenes, which would be considered pretty. On closer analysis, one discovers that the
scenes’ use of lush visuals is meant to elevate the black woman and learn how to give other black
individuals an opportunity. In Brazilian society, black women are denigrated and rarely get an
equal opportunity to discuss their issues. Therefore, most black women end up unable to
represent themselves and showcase their challenges and victories. Thus, Brazilian society
considers the film as a success in advertising the African American culture in the country.
In both films, Galt’s rhetoric is easily observable as both films face exclusions; it is
connected to feminine values, the black race, and engage in various aspects of homosexuality
(Galt). However, to fully incorporate some aspects of the film, such as the homosexuality of the
character, the film has to use visually lush scenes to depict the characters as drag queens. An
example of the scenario is in madam Sata where the production uses the visually lush scene to
increase madam Sata appeal to the public (Aïnouz). In the scene, the concept of homosexuality
affects the cinematic perception of the film, thus increasing the unjustified bias against the film.
The use of pretty aesthetics in depicting the power of black women also affects the quality of the
scene and thus the movie’s acceptability. The patriarchal dominance in the world of film has led
to the prevention of releasing such films. Although madam Sata plays an extremely masculine
role in most movies, they are upset due to the film’s depiction of black homosexuals.
The connection between visually lush scenes to the wrong kind of bodies plays a
significant role in affecting the cinematic perception of a film. Therefore, the biased perception
implies an increase in appreciation of visually lush scenes if there is no connection between the
scenes and aspects such as gender, sexuality, race, and class (Leo). However, in the production
of films, the development of pretty scenes often leads to an association with either the female
gender, a minority race, or a sexually charged environment. Film producers, therefore, face the
struggle of meeting the patriarchal and colonial expectations of the cinematic world hence
limiting their means to express themselves. However, the decolonial feminist plays a significant
role in encouraging the use of such scenes as it plays a role in the resistance to the fixed laws of
the patriarchy. The films madam Sata and K’bela are examples of films that incorporate pretty
aesthetics in the production of the films. Although the aesthetics are incorporated for various
reasons, they support the cause initially mentioned by Lugone for the minority, eventually
finding the means to express themselves.
However, pretty scenes can also contribute to part of the colonization resistance that
dehumanizes several individuals. The colonial mindset within the film industry is a significant
contributor to the rejection of pretty films due to their connection with minority races, the female
gender, homosexuality, and the lower class (Terrefe). Therefore, the decolonial feminist, to
change the colonialist mindset that holds back the production of pretty films instead of favoring
other aesthetic values, gathers together to rebel against the cinematic norms. The film K’bela is
an example of the decolonial feminist approach to resistance against the masculine-dominated
cinema in brazil (Thayna). Brazil considers K’bela a significant achievement as it was produced
entirely and developed by black women. Several of the actors are also black women as they
depict the life of black women in brazil. Madam Sata is another example of resistance to the
colonial mindset due to its values in the film. Although the film is about a black man, the
homosexual nature of the man alleviates his female personality, which is more popular and
appreciated. The film, therefore, combines various controversial aspects to discuss a complicated
topic hence displaying the importance of using pretty scenes.
In conclusion, madam Sata and K’bela provide interesting examples of the importance of
incorporating pretty scenes in various films. Although most productions view the scenes
connected to the wrong kinds of bodies, thus generating a troublesome image, the visually lush
scenes are necessary for outlining various aspects of the film. In Madam Sata, the use of visually
lush scenes assists in defining madam Sata’s character as appealing to a vast number of the
homosexual community in brazil. In K’bela, the incorporation of pretty scenes depicts the beauty
of the black community and black women in brazil. Although both movies use the scenes for
different purposes, they can both be acknowledged as resistance towards the colonial mindset,
which led to the rejection of pretty scenes due to such connections.
Works Cited
Galt, Rosalind. Pretty: Film and the Decorative Image. Columbia UP, 2011.
Kbela. Directed by Yasmin Thayna, Princeton’s Brazil LAB, 2015.
Leo, Brooklyn. “The Colonial/Modern [Cis]Gender System and Trans World
Traveling.” Hypatia, vol. 35, no. 3, 2020, pp. 454-474.
Madame Satã. Directed by Karim Aïnouz, Lumière, 2002.
Terrefe. “The Pornotrope of Decolonial Feminism.” Critical Philosophy of Race, vol. 8, no. 12, 2020, p. 134.
Writing on Film and Media
May 9, 2021
Derek Jarman’s Blue
Derek Jarman’s Blue encompasses a monochromatic blue color throughout the entire
film. The film incorporates voice-overs and musical soundtracks, which aid in furthering the
message and theme of the film. The film incorporates the suffering of Jarman after diagnosis
with AIDS. The suffering is portrayed through the monochromatic display, musical soundtracks,
and voice-overs that talk about the suffering of the LGBTQ community in a world that had not
grown to accept the prevalence of AIDS and homosexuality. Thus, Blue interconnects AIDS and
the LGBTQ community, showing the plight of the LGBTQ community with AIDS.
Thus, Jarman’s Blue highlights a significant period in the 1990s when AIDS was a
significant problem globally. During the 1980s, there was massive research on AIDS due to its
vast prevalence. However, there was little education on AIDS, given that the virus that causes
AIDS, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was officially recognized in 1986.
Furthermore, the World Health Organization (WHO) conceptualized a program to raise
awareness of AIDS (Avert, 2019). It shows how little the public was informed. Hence the
evolution of myths and misconceptions regarding AIDS, such as its causes.
Moreover, during the early 1990s, some high-profile persons died of AIDS, such as
Freddie Mercury, the lead singer of the rock band Queen (Avert, 2019). Thus, the death of
notable persons helped raise the need for mass awareness of the public on the spread of AIDS,
irrespective of social class. The film thus attempted to raise awareness on AIDS, leading to the
death of many persons, including celebrities. Thus, it called for more caution, as the world was
dying and people were not aware.
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Furthermore, the film also encompasses the revelation of the isolation amongst the
LGBTQ community. The film illustrates the solitude in identifying as a queer, which can be seen
as the voices lament how they want to share their emptiness. Notably, the 1990s were arguably
one of the most vital periods for gay rights. People who identified with the LGBTQ were
subjected to violence. The majority of the political class did not agree with same-sex marriages,
which were seen as uncultured and immoral. Thus, it was common for people to get stigmatized
and live a lonely life. The stigmatization was also similar for people living with AIDS, given the
slight awareness of the epidemic (“Guides: A Brief History of Civil Rights in the United States:
The 1990s,” n.d.).
Jarman was diagnosed with AIDS in 1986. He also identified with the LGBTQ
community and was amongst the figureheads of the community, being one of their significant
spokespeople. Jarman thus attempted to further the voice of the LGBTQ community through
works of art, including the film Blue and other films such as Smiling in Slow Motion. Blue is
arguably one of Jarman’s most famous works in asserting the universal consideration for AIDS
and the LGBTQ community (Film London, n.d.).
Notably, the film utilizes an unusual single shot of Blue color from the beginning to the
end. Moreover, the film is named Blue. Blue can translate to an informal meaning of sadness or
depression, which Jarman essentially portrays. Thus, the Blue color accompanies a sad tone,
especially as the voices reveal the psychological suffering of AIDS patients. Moreover, the
monochrome display also deviated from the usual cinematic approach of the film industry,
showing a deviation from the film industry. It pushes past the limits of cinematic expression as
Jarman meditates about AIDS and his imminent death. It shows the creation of awareness on
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issues seen as taboos in society, but at the same time leading to discrimination. Thus, the Blue
monochromatic display plays a significant role in portraying the theme and message of the film.
The film also utilizes a voice-over which is accompanied by musical soundtracks. The
musical soundtracks are seen to enhance the message of the film. Notably, the voice-overs are
not only Jarmans but also of other people, male and female. It shows how AIDS and the LGBTQ
community are not limited to his situation and also affected other people; irrespective of gender.
Thus, the different voices shifted focus away from Jarman and into the whole society, showing
that he was not the only person facing imminent death due to AIDS.
Initially, Blue incorporates an immersive voice-over, with the voice encouraging the
audience to succumb to the persona’s choice of form while also asking the audience not to turn
their gaze away from the monochromatic blue screen. The audience is encouraged to open their
eyes so that they become one with the persona’s experiences. It thus seeks to have a society in the
same shoes as the LGBTQ community and AIDS. Thus, it provides for a less critical approach
and the comprehension of the plight of the persona. The blue got all-encompassing, something
that rose above the limits of material and, likewise, the limits of visual perception. Jarman’s film
has a similar impact. Rather than various screens, however, Blue depends on its glowing picture
to mirror the blue across a film room. Not exclusively does the crowd see blue on the screen, but
also the dividers, roof, film seats, and their arms, as well.
Therefore, Jarman displayed a rather political and socially challenging issue in the 1980s
and 1990s, which continue to be a problem in the current times. AIDS is still prevalent,
especially in developing nations, and notably, despite the measure taken in place in most western
nations, it is still existent. Attitudes toward the LGBTQ community have also been improving. It
is due to enormous awareness that has been made and notably the recognition of the need for
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equality despite sexual orientation. Thus, Jarman presents the current society, a view of the life
of an AIDS patient in the 1990s. Society ought to consider since the majority are suffering,
especially in solitude, through stigmatization. Moreover, the LGBTQ community continues to be
mistreated despite the legislation in place. Most importantly, AIDS patients and the LGBTQ
were seen as immoral beings when there was little awareness; and despite the progress made by
governments and non-governmental organizations, the issues addressed by Jarman are still
Work Cites
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Avert. (2019). History of HIV and AIDS overview. Avert. Retrieved 7 May 2021, from
Film London. About Derek Jarman. Film London. Retrieved 7 May 2021, from
Guides: A Brief History of Civil Rights in the United States: The 1990s,. Retrieved 7 May 2021, from
History and memory
Documentary films mainly emphasize narrating the stories, which presents a better
relationship between the tale and the listeners. In most cases, decoloniality films involve a lot of
sharing of experiences from different people’s viewpoints. This method has helped to connect
many audiences in remembering the colonial period and the things they had to go through.
Stories are essential in sharing our history, and they also show how much one knows their
history and culture. Many film creators have normalized creating films as a means of
decoloniality and helping viewers understand more about their cultures and history, which could
help them in their current or future lives. Most of the decoloniality films allow many people to
remember their colonial times. As seen from many decoloniality films, the narrations have
helped many find motivation and work towards decolonization. This essay will explain the
relationship between cinema and decoloniality, the conceptual framework necessary for the
topic, and the sensory layers present in the film, such as sound, visual construction, and sound.
Relation between Film and Decoloniality
Many films are made to bring history to people and help others remember what they
faced during the colonial period. Most of these incidents happened to indigenous people during
the times they became prisoners for the colonialists. Decoloniality of modernity involves
disclosing many cultures or hybridity as an interpretation and explanation of indigenous
concerns. The main aim of a film in decoloniality is to ensure that the historian can renew and
revive the colonial practices, for example, language. Movies can help to restructure culture and
history, which is historical reengineering. In a film, a person could decide to use political,
economic experiences, or cultural experiences by ensuring that one can create a new academic
path, and some of the practices could be applied in the present. Future generations to preserve
and maintain history. Multiculturalism could slow down the decoloniality rules, preventing the
culture from reforming and reconstructing its cultural practices. The chances of improving and
rebuilding culture are affected by the decolonization of acts and the language and characters
representing their ways of life.
Films can help revisit the past because they contain research and people’s spoken word
about the culture, happenings, and everything about their history. The decoloniality practices
could help in making information essential for the reform process. The rules also help to embrace
the simultaneous lessons learned from the record entirely. Films are necessary because they help
to finish the modernity of the people’s culture successfully. Modernity is crucial because it helps
to see the beauty of culture and sometimes carry on with it to future generations.
Conceptual Framework
The most appropriate conceptual framework that aligns well with film and decoloniality
is the lens of Silva Rivera Cusicanqui, which sought to explain that it is the responsibility of
indigenous people to commit to finding their culture and history and keep them on record. The
most significant challenge culture has been facing for a long time is colonial conditions and
modernity. The experiences indigenous people face during colonial power should prompt them
to ensure the world created by colonialism gets back to its feet (Backwell). Silva’s lens explains
decoloniality with how she tries to reconstruct and recover her indigenous roots by learning her
native language/mother tongue. Decoloniality can also be present in films, according to the
Cusicanqui; everybody must do their best to revive the history their families experienced in the
colonial period because it may be helpful in many aspects of life (Cusicanqui). Cusicanqui’s
research shows how racial frameworks and the unrecorded collision caused the disappearance of
the native culture and experiences. However, she says that decolonization must be the
responsibility of every indigenous person, and everyone who feels that they have their culture in
them should strive to encourage it. This is what anybody must do in the face of their colonial
history to ensure people’s experiences are marked and remembered forever despite the trauma it
caused people to have.
The Cusicanqui framework explains that one cannot decolonize without practicing the
decolonization practices. An example of a film that uses decoloniality in the History and
Memory film by Tajiri. Tajiri practices the decolonization practice by using her family’s
experience to keep the record of their memory and goes to the national archives to look for the
recorded history of the Japanese and Japanese Americans’ imprisonment. From the Cusicanqui’s
lens concept, one must have interculturality for them to succeed in decolonization. From this,
one must look at the colonization’s internal aspects to find its complexity and affect the native
people. Tajiri realizes that the imprisonment affected her people in traumatic ways where their
brains decided to shut down the past. Her mother could not remember the full experiences she
faced during the internment camps. Tajiri describes how her mother completely changed after the
incident and how she managed to help her memories return. She encourages her family to share
the memories they had about the internment, which generally contributed to the recovery of her
memories. The way she continuously asked her family many questions about the event showed
that she was well prepared and entirely motivated to learn her culture and decolonize it. Many
colonial experiences leave people’s brains in an erase mode, where they prefer not to remember
the challenging experiences they encountered. Films can help in decoloniality where it would be
easy to identify whether the old stories were true. Colonial films also trigger memory and
remember the incidences, which is essential in ensuring that the correct happenings are recorded.
This framework provides that a person carrying out the modernity practices can have the
conf8dence to do thorough research, ask many questions, especially to the older people, their
experiences, and document or film their responses.
Sensorial Layers of the Film
The quality of video and sound for many decoloniality films are not always as perfect as
modern films. Still, they try their best to capture every aspect considering that the history was in
the 20 century. The video would utilize many elements to present the effects of moving through
history and capturing the activities and practices. At some point, one can hear an echo to show
that the video discussed going back in time to show the incidences during the history to review
the occurrences. There was also some silence in the film, which shows the illumination of
history. The people talking in the video are heard, and every word they say must be clear. From a
decoloniality film, one can listen to songs, listen to the voices of people shouting and screaming,
and some speaking in a native language. The agents show the experiences people were going
through, how they responded to one another, and their activities to ascertain their reality. In most
of these videos, it is always clear that any happening can be heard, for example, carving, digging,
or any other cultural activities the people in the 19th century could be doing. From the videos,
one can hear the sounds as though there was poor frequency, which indicated that the video was
made in the 20 century. The sounds and the background soundtrack present a fair to good
experience to show the epic version.
The film’s visuals have been presented in black and white and colored forms to show a
combination of memories during the colonial/historical period. During war or any violence, we
see the visuals in black and white, presenting a perfect atmosphere and tone to show the effects
of the war. It also allows the viewer to view the films from different angles and world viewpoints
in the form of a faint memory (Marks). The black and white color also shows that the experience
may not have been factual because, in most cases, they showed when the videos presented were
unproved assumptions from research. The colored part of the film shows that they were honest
and experienced, unlike the black and white scenes of the film. The colored part of the film
captures everything, including the texture and patterns of the film. The visuals are not entirely
clear to show the time frame of the history. Several other filmmakers and artists have advanced
the memory and history documentary and improved its quality. The filmmakers have
significantly enhanced the movements in the film to create better effects and texture and make
the video more visible.
In conclusion, film and decoloniality relate in that they represent the practices performed
during the colonial period. The main aim of the decoloniality films is to ensure that the historical
rules remain known for many generations in the future. It aims to reconstruct, preserve and
rebuild history to prevent it from fading and dying, whether it is a major or minor thing. It is
essential to embrace culture because the historical practices could come in handy when one
wants to use them for daily living. Some historical methods helped maintain discipline, so many
historians prefer to keep written and recorded forms of the history they discover. Decoloniality
films usually have good presentations, if not better, to produce the desired effects.
Works Cited
Backwell, Mayle. Indigeneity. California: NYU Press, 2021.
Cusicanqui, Silvia Rivera. “A Reflection on the Practices and Discourses of Decolonization.”
The South Atlantic Quarterly (2012).
Marks, Laura U. The Skin of the Film. Durham, London: Duke University Press,2000.

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Explanation & Answer:
500 words

Conceptual FrameWork

Documentary Films

colonial practices

sensory layers

visual construction

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