University of Melbourne Haidts View of Morality Discussion Questions


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In your written response answers make certain
you cite extensively from Anthem, “The ‘Three
Furies’ of Libertarianism,” Give Me Liberty!, Art
History (from the Announcements), and any
relevant clips located in the question itself.
Feel free to refer to Anthem and Ayn Rand
Materials (Includes Exam at Bottom of Module).
Lastly, a reminder: On Cheating, and a Brief
Tutorial to Help You Understand Plagiarism and
How to Avoid It (Indiana University)
Question 1 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following best describes Haidt’s
view of morality?
1) Haidt thinks morality comes from
2) Haidt thinks that morality never
changes, because people are always
rational and thus culture plays
little or no role in what humans see
as right or wrong.
3) Haidt thinks that morality is nonexistent.
4) Haidt thinks that morality varies by
culture; intuition plays a part in
morality; and, cultural conventions
impact one’s morality.
Question 2 (1 point)
# ”
Lane, Paterson, and Rand gave the state no
productive role in the economy and little
positive role in society. Thus, they hated FDR
and the New Deal.
1) True
2) False
Question 3 (1 point)
# ”
The careers of Lane, Paterson, and Rand had
little to no influence on the rise and
development of American conservatism.
1) True
2) False
Question 4 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following, Lane, Paterson, or Rand
was in the long term most successful?
1) Rose Wilder Lane
2) Isabel Paterson
3) Ayn Rand
Question 5 (1 point)
# ”
Land, Paterson, and Rand all articulated a vision
of American life where autonomous individuals
working for their own benefit harmoniously
shaped the good society.
1) True
2) False
Question 6 (1 point)
# ”
According to Haidt, what is the purpose of
1) Religion’s purpose is to prioritize
the individual over the group.
2) Haidt explains the purposes and
benefits of organized religions and
holds that man’s natural instinct is
to be part of a group. He explains
how the morality of a group
overrides the needs and morality of
its individuals.
Haidt think the purpose of religion
is to make people feel worse (e.g.
sinners)and thus seek salvation.
Haidt makes the general conclusion
that for one group – be it religious
or political – to understand the
“righteous mind” of a group with
opposing views, it is NOT essential
that it have a clear knowledge of
the other’s moral foundation.
Question 7 (1 point)
# ”
One of the ironies of the careers of Lane,
Paterson, and Rand was that although they
advocated for capitalism they poured scorn on
actual capitalists (not to mention right-wing
intellectuals such as F.A. Hayek and Milton
1) True
2) False
Question 8 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following accurately matches the
views of Lane, Paterson, and Rand with their
books, their titles, and the ideas contained
1) Paterson – God of the Machine, the
United States, collectively, as “dynamo.”
Lane – Discovery of Freedom,
childhood as happy, the United States
must create a welfare state.
Rand – The Fountainhead, ethical
selfishness (later called Objectivism)
embodied in a hypermasculine hero.
Question 9 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following is true of Rose Wilder
Lane, Isabel Paterson, and Ayn Rand?
They claimed their womanhood
privileged them and gave them a
particular wisdom that men simply did
not share.
2) They were all immigrants to the United
States from the Soviet Union.
They were considered as talented but
ineffective writers by leading male
figures on the Right.
They did not claim their womanhood as
a particular source of wisdom and they
did not identify with women as a group.
Question 10 (1 point)
# ”
Evolutionary theorists often refer to the
“selfish gene” that will compel an animal
to do things that will lead to the
perpetuation of that gene. Although man has
a natural intuition for his own welfare, he
also has a tendency to play “tit for tat.”
In other words, there is something in the
moral make-up of man to do favors in return
for favors given – it’s a mutually
beneficial arrangement for the welfare of
the group and is part of the
“fairness/cheating” receptor of the
righteous mind.
1) True
2) False
Question 11 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following best describes
Jonathan Haidt’s view regarding how humans
Haidt uses the metaphor of Spock and
Luke Skywalker and argues that
reasoning like Skywalker would
always be best.
Haidt uses the metaphor of ant
society and maintains that ants
should be our model for how we want
to live and reason.
3) Haidt uses the metaphor of the
elephant and the rider and holds
that our reason – the rider – has
always guided our passions – the
Haidt used the metaphor of the
elephant and the rider and holds
that the “rider” is the reasoning
part of the brain that justifies
behavior while the “elephant” is the
emotional, instinctual part of the
mind. The stronger force is the
“elephant” but the “rider’s” job is
to temper emotional behavior with
learned reasoning.
Question 12 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following, Lane, Paterson, or Rand,
saw her father’s chemistry shop seized by the
Bolsheviks in 1918, plunging her family into
poverty, thus leaving her with a lifelong
suspicion of the state and humanitarian moral
1) Rose Wilder Lane
2) Isabel Paterson
3) Ayn Rand
Question 13 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following best describes how
Haidt thinks one can persuade others?
1) It is impossible, Haidt thinks, to
persuade others of your point of
2) It is impossible, Haidt thinks, to
have your own views changed by
3) Haidt thinks that the the “elephant”
evolved to serve the “rider;” that
is, man’s fundamental response is
rational and guided by cognitive
reasoning. The “elephant” holds
fewer convictions than the “rider.”
Appealing to the rational level of a
person is more likely to change
beliefs than appealing to his
emotional nature. Elephants, in
other words, cannnot listen to
riders and pre-conceived notions
never change.
4) Haidt thinks that the “rider”
evolved to serve the “elephant;”
that is, man’s fundamental response
is intuitive and emotional but is
tempered and guided by cognitive
reasoning. The “elephant” holds more
convictions than the “rider.”
Appealing to the emotional level of
a person is more likely to change
beliefs than appealing to his
cognitive nature. Research has
indicated that the “elephant” can
listen to reason. Pre-conceived
opinions about abortion, for
example, can be changed when a
person interacts with a real person
who is going through the ordeal.
Question 14 (1 point)
# ”
The careers of Lane, Paterson, and Rand show
that any intellectual history of women must
include not only feminism, or antifeminism, but
also libertarians.
1) True
2) False
Question 15 (1 point)
# ”
There is a hierarchical and authoritarian
sense that is part of our intuition which
aligns with the authority/subversive
receptor. There is a pecking order, for
example, among chickens. Dominant leaders,
usually the alpha males, emerge among
animal families and packs. Lower ranking
animals appear submissive to their leaders.
While animals use the threat of violence
for control, human authorities take on
responsibility for their groups. Authority
is one of the receptors of the righteous
mind. When authority is challenged, whether
deserved or not, everyone in the group is
impacted and feels threatened. On the left,
insubordination may be encouraged. Those on
the right are more likely to feel more
comfortable feeling subversive to an
1) True
2) False
Question 16 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following, Lane, Paterson, or Rand,
was a well-known book reviewer for The New
York Herald Tribune (e.g. “Turns with a
1) Rose Wilder Lane
2) Isabel Paterson
3) Ayn Rand
Question 17 (1 point)
# ”
Anthropologist Christopher Boehm studied
tribal cultures as well as chimpanzee
families with Jane Goodall. He saw many
similarities between humans and the chimps.
Humans are inherently hierarchical but
sometime during human development there was
a transition that allowed them to live as
egalitarians and they banded together to
fend off alpha-males who might emerge as
dominant bullies. By doing so, Boehm
contends that the first true moral
communities were created. In these “reverse
dominance hierarchies,” people banded
together to restrain dominant alpha-males.
Those males who showed such tendencies were
ostracized and virtually kept out of the
gene pool so that kinder, gentler creatures
would prevail. One trait that appears to be
exclusively human is the tendency toward
reciprocal altruism. But reciprocity only
really works in pairs. Man gets along in
group settings when it can be shown that
all can share in the rewards.
1) True
2) False
Question 18 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following, Lane, Paterson, or Rand,
was born in the Dakota Territory, helped write
Laura Ingalls Wilder’s The Little House on the
Prairie books, and viewed the frontier as the
repository of authentic American values?
1) Rose Wilder Lane
2) Isabel Paterson
3) Ayn Rand
Question 19 (1 point)
# ”
How does Haidt portray Thomas Jefferson’s
moral dilemma – and his views on reason and
passion – while living in Paris in the
1) Thomas Jefferson saw reason as
superior – always – to passion and
this is what ruled his life.
2) Thomas Jefferson saw passion as
superior – always – to reason and
reason is what ruled his life.
3) Thomas Jefferson saw neither reason
nor passion as important. He was a
politician and viewed power as all
that really mattered.
4) Thomas Jefferson saw reason and
passion as separate but equal
entities. While in Paris, Jefferson
had fallen in love with a married
woman. Addressing the conflict
between propriety and emotions, he
wrote a letter to his beloved in
which he portrayed his heart and his
head having a debate.
Question 20 (1 point)
# ”
In Descartes’ Error by Antonio Damasio, the
author made a connection between brain
damage and lack of a sense of morality.
Which of the following best describes his
1) His theory was that thinking
rationally was not possible for
human beings.
2) His theory was that human beings
were more like Spock than Luke
3) His theory was that feelings and
bodily reactions were essential for
thinking rationally. In other words,
the head couldn’t fully function
without the heart which rejected
Jefferson’s theory that head and
heart could operate successfully on
an independent basis.
4) His theory was that human beings
were more like Luke Skywalker than
Question 21 (1 point)
# ”
Lane, Paterson, and Rand all shared ideas, thus
pointing to what Burns labels “crossfertilization” between all three women as they
worked on books advocating individualism.
1) True
2) False
Question 22 (1 point)
# ”
According to Haidt, what is the function of
moral reasoning?
1) The function of moral reasoning is
to tell the truth, no matter what
the circumstances.
2) The function of moral reasoning is
to get away with what you can while
you can, with whomever you can.
3) Humans have developed and learned to
cooperate in a society with one
another where everyone is held
responsible for his actions and may
be required to explain it. The
appearance of one’s behavior and
reputation often becomes more
important than reality (many
politicians might come to mind).
Research has found that a person who
knows he will be called upon to
explain his reasoning is much more
prepared than a person who is asked
to explain his position without
4) The function of moral reasoning is
complicated, but in the end it is
nothing less than the need to obey
Question 23 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following is true of Rose Wilder
Lane, Isabel Paterson, and Ayn Rand?
1) Their work centered on the experiences
of women as a group and the prejudice
they were subjected to by men.
2) Their work centered on the experiences
of immigrants as a group and the
prejudice they were subjected to by
3) Their work centered on the collective
rights and “common good” of
4) Their work centered on the individual
as “dynamo,” an endlessly renewable
energy source being threatened by an
encroaching state.
Question 24 (1 point)
# ”
One of the ironies of the careers of Lane,
Paterson, and Rand was that although their
books contained some ugly characters – “the
three furies of libertarianism” – they were in
their private lives kind and agreeable individuals
(a fact that went a long way in helping sell their
1) True
2) False
Question 25 (1 point)
# ”
One of the ironies of the careers of Lane,
Paterson, and Rand was that although staunchly
and proudly internationalist in outlook, their
ideas had influence only in America, through
organizations such as the Mont Pelerin society.
1) True
2) False
Question 26 (1 point)
# ”
What does it mean to be WEIRD?
1) It means that most psychological
research has been conducted on a
subset of the general population who
are are White, Educated,
Irresponsible, Racist, and
Demanding, and this means that such
research has limits of which we need
to be aware.
2) It means that most psychological
research has been conducted on a
subset of the general population who
are Western, Educated,
Industrialized, Rich, and
Democratic, and this means that such
research has limits of which we need
to be aware.
Question 27 (1 point)
# ”
Which of the following accurately matches the
views of Lane, Paterson, and Rand toward
1) The government enhances one’s
freedom (Lane).
2) The government is a source of
economic and individual energy
3) The government crushes genius (Rand).
Question 28 (1 point)
# ”
Document 2
Agreement between Landlord and
Sharecropper, 18th day of January, 1879
This agreement, made and entered into this
18th day of January, 1879, between Solid
South, of the first part, and John Dawson, of the
second part.
Witnesseth: that said party of the first part for
and in consideration of eighty-eight pounds of
lint cotton to be paid to the said Solid South, as
hereinafter expressed, hereby leases to said
Dawson, for the year A.D. 1879, a certain tract
of land, the boundaries of which are well
understood by the parties hereto, and the area
of which the said parties hereby agree to be
fifteen acres, being a portion of the Waterford
Plantation, in Madison Parish, Louisiana.
The said Dawson is to cultivate said land in a
proper manner, under the general
superintendence of the said Solid South, or his
agent or manager, and is to surrender to said
lessor peaceable possession of said leased
premises at the expiration of this lease without
notice to quit. All ditches, turn-rows, bridges,
fences, etc. on said land shall be kept in proper
condition by said Dawson, or at his expense. All
cotton-seed raised on said land shall be held for
the exclusive use of said plantation, and no
goods of any kind shall be kept for sale on any
said land unless by consent of said lessor.
If said Solid South shall furnish to said lessee
money or necessary supplies, or stock, or
material, or either or all of them during this
lease, to enable him to make a crop, the amount
of said advances, not to exceed $475 (of which
$315 has been furnished in two mules, plows,
etc.), the said Dawson agrees to pay for the
supplies and advances so furnished, out of the
first cotton picked and saved on said land from
the crop of said year, and to deliver said cotton
of the first picking to the said Solid South, in
the gin on said plantation, to be by him bought
or shipped at his option, the proceeds to be
applied to payment of said supply bill, which is
to be fully paid on or before the 1st day of
January, 1880.
After payment of said supply bill, the said lessee
is to pay to said lessor, in the gin of said
plantation, the rent cotton herein before
stipulated, said rent to be fully paid on or before
the 1st day of January, 1880. All cotton raised
on said land is to be ginned on the gin of said
lessor, on said plantation, and said lessee is to
pay $4 per bale for ginning same.
To secure payment of said rent and supply bill,
the said Dawson grants unto said Solid South a
special privilege and right of pledge on all the
products raised on said land, and on all his
stock, farming implements, and personal
property, and hereby waives in favor of said
Solid South the benefit of any and all
homestead laws and exemption laws now in
force, or which may be in force, in Louisiana,
and agrees that all his property shall be seized
and sold to pay said rent and supply bill in
default of payment thereof as herein agreed.
Any violation of this contract shall render the
lease void.
X [John Dawson’s mark]
Solid South
Source: Excerpt from Nell Irvin Painter,
Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after
Reconstruction. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
1977). Found at the companion web site for
PBS American Experience, “Reconstruction, The
Second Civil War,” at
crop/ps_dawson.html, and published on the site
December 19, 2003.
The labor arrangements of sharecropping
emerged during Reconstruction in the South.
What does Document 2 add to the
understanding of sharecropping?
the personal perspective of a southern
the recollection of a former slave, put
down into words by a historian
a legal contract of labor between a
landowner and an agricultural worker
a press release published by the
Freedmen’s Bureau
Question 29 (1 point)
# ”
According to the sharecropping contract, who is
responsible for the repair and maintenance of
boundary fencing, bridges, and the like on Solid
South’s property?
as the landowner, Solid South is
the U.S. Government Reconstruction Aid
Fund is responsible, through the
Freedman’s Bureau
maintenance and repair are a shared
responsibility of the landowner and the
John Lawson, the sharecropper, is
responsible for repair and maintenance, at
his expense
Question 30 (1 point)
# ”
Document 1
Catherine Ann Devereux Edmonston, Diary
Entries of a Southern Plantation Wife, [Make
No Promises] May 8, 1865, and [This
Unexpected, Unsolicited, Gift of Freedom] May
12, 1865, and [The Freedman’s Bureau] October
1, 1865
May 8, 1865
Yesterday came Sue & Rachel with the
astounding news that brother had arrived & had
gone to Montrose with the intention of freeing
his negroes & soon after came Messrs Gilliam &
W Smith & announced that he had done so &
that father was to follow suit this afternoon. I
could not understand it. It seemed inexplicable
to me & suicidal in the last degree . . .
This morning came father & told us to our relief
that both the girls & the gentlemen were
mistaken, that brother & himself had merely
announced to their negroes that Mr Schofield
said they were free, but that they [(their
masters]) did not believe they were, but that if
any of them wished to go away and try their
freedom to go now-at once & to stay away, that
their places could be supplied, but that in the
fall when their own rights & those of the
negroes were defined & settled there would be
ample time to talk of it & that if they were then
free that they should be paid for their labour
out of this year’s crop. In this last clause I think
they made a mistake. Make no promises, so as
to have none to break, is a good rule in dealing
with both children and negroes & negroes are
but ignorant children at best . . .
May 12, 1865
Such a week as the past has been, I hope never
to see again. Excitement & anxiety have ruled
each day, until at last I became heartsick &
weary & longed for rest, rest, come how it
would, only rest. As we had feared, father’s
negroes either misunderstood or pretended to
misunderstand father’s and brother’s talk with
them. On Monday several of them were absent
from work & one man kept his wife at home
contrary to plantation discipline. A firm &
resolute hand checked all disobedience at
home, however, and a visit to Weldon satisfied
some of the absentees, who have almost all
returned, professing to have found out that
they were better off as they were. We have lost
none here. The poor creatures seem as usual,
only terribly dejected, & are much more tender
& affectionate in their manner to us than ever
before. It is a terrible cruelty to them, this
unexpected, unsolicited gift of freedom, & they
are at their wits ends. Their old moorings are
rudely & suddenly cut loose, & they drift
without a rudder into the unknown sea of
freedom. God help such philanthropy.
October 1, 1865
The Freedman’s Bureau, facetiously known as
the “Free Nigger’s Christ” is the source of the
most unmitigated annoyance to our whole
country. The very old Fiend himself could scarce
have devised a more effectual method of
irritation or a more perfect system of perpetual
worry. No sooner are the negroes seemingly
contented & beginning to work steadily than
some Major, Capt, or Lieut in the Free negro
service with more time than brains announces a
Speech to the Freedmen in Halifax, when “down
goes the shovel & the hoe” and presto away
they all start to drink some new draught from
the “Free Spring” & they come home with their
heads so filled with their fancied rights, so
puffed up with what the “New Orders” to be
issued at Christmas are to give them, that
discipline & order are at an end for days.
Source: Beth G. Crabtree and James W. Patton,
eds., “Journal of a Secesh Lady”: The Diary of
Catherine Ann Devereux Edmonston (Raleigh,
NC: Division of Archives and History, 1979), pp.
709‒28. Accessed September 12, 2014, from
Why would historians want to analyze the diary
of a plantation wife during the Reconstruction
Diaries are factually more accurate than
public documents of the period.
Diaries show the attitudes of a person
who lived during the time under study.
In a diary, historians can find criticism of
the Reconstruction era.
Such documents can be used for
quotations in historical writing.
Question 31 (1 point)
# ”
Which statement below best describes
Catherine Edmonston’s beliefs about the
Freedmen’s Bureau?
Catherine Edmonston is grateful for the
presence of the Freedmen’s Bureau as a
fair and honest institution to help the
South adjust to changes after the Civil
The main purpose of the Freedmen’s
Bureau is to educate former slaves for
their future of freedom.
The Freedmen’s Bureau is an oppressive
arm of the federal government whose
purpose is to punish white landowners of
the South and deny them their rights.
The Freedmen’s Bureau is a weak and
inconsequential institution.
Question 32 (1 point)
# ”
According to George Waring’s report, all below
are challenges generated by overcrowded living
conditions except
standing water that accumulates “filth”
and causes disease to spread.
waste that accumulates in waterways and
between piers, and causes problems,
especially according to the ebb and flow
of tides.
that water and sewage clogs easily in
densely populated areas.
that the people who live in tenements
are, by virtue of the cultures they come
from, too lazy to take proper care of their
Question 33 (1 point)
# ”
Document 1
Click to view larger image.
Source: “Cliff Dwellers” by George Bellows:
Digital Image © Museum Associates / LACMA.
Licensed by Art Resource, NY
Use specific observations from the painting
“Cliff Dwellers” to explain what you believe
George Bellows is trying to say about life in the
crowded tenements of New York City.
Question 34 (1 point)
# ”
Document 3
“The following is extracted from a report made
by the General Board of Health to the British
Parliament, concerning the administration of
the Public Health Act and the Nuisances
Removal and Diseases Prevention Acts from
1848 to 1854.
“Where instances have been favorable for
definite observation, as in broad blocks of
buildings, the effects of sanitary improvement
have been already manifested to an extent
greater than could have been anticipated, and
than then can be readily credited by those who
have not paid attention to the subject.
“In one favorable instance, that of between 600
and 700 persons of the working class in the
metropolis, during a period of three years, the
average rate of mortality has been reduced to
between 13 and 14 in 1000. In another
instance, for a shorter period, among 500
persons, the mortality has been reduced as low
as even 7 in 1000. The average rate of mortality
for the whole metropolis being 23 in 1000.” (p.
“The work which has been done, and which is
now in contemplation, in England, is suggestive
of what might, with advantage, be adopted in
the larger cities in America. Especially in New
York an improved means of outlet is desirable,
and it is doubtful whether the high rate of
mortality of that city will be materially reduced
before effective measures are devised for
removing the vast accumulations of filth, which
ebb and flow in many of the larger sewers, with
each change of the tide; and which are
deposited between the piers along the riversides.
“It would be practicable to construct a main
receiving sewer under the river streets, skirting
the city, from the vicinity of Bellevue Hospital
on the east side, passing near the outer edge of
the Battery, and continuing to the high land
near 60th street on the west side; having its
water level at least twenty feet below the level
of the street, and receiving all of the sewage
which now flows into the river. At the Battery,
this receiving sewer might be connected, by a
tunnel, with the Brooklyn shore, its contents
being carried to a convenient point south of
Fort Hamilton, where their discharge, (by lifting
steam pumps), into the waters of the Lower Bay,
would be attended with no inconvenience. The
improvement being carried out to this point, it
would probably not be long before the
advantages to result from the application of the
sewage to the sandy soil on the south side of
Long Island would be manifest.
“The effect of such an improvement on the
health of the city, which is now in constant
danger from the putrefying filth of the sewers,
(these being little better than covered cesspools under the streets,) would, no doubt, equal
the improvement that has resulted from similar
work in London.” (p. 228)
“For a district inhabited by 10,000 persons, a
12-inch pipe would afford a sufficient outlet,
unless the amount of road drainage were
unusually large, and for the largest sewers,
pipes of more than 18 inches diameter are
rarely used, these doing the work which, under
the old system, was allotted to a sewer 6 feet
high and 3 feet broad.” (p. 231)
“The principles herein set forth, whether
relating to sanitary improvement, to
convenience and decency of living, or to the use
of waste matters of houses in agricultural
improvement, are no less applicable in America
than elsewhere; and the more general adoption
of improved house drainage and sewerage, and
of the use of sewage matters in agriculture,
would add to the health and prosperity of its
people, and would indicate a great advance in
civilization.” (p. 239)
Source: Accessed at The Project Gutenberg
EBook of Draining for Profit, and Draining for
Health by George E. Waring
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at
no cost and with almost no restrictions
whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or reuse it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg
License included with this eBook or online at
Title: Draining for Profit, and Draining for
Author: George E. Waring
Release Date: October 4, 2006 [Ebook #19465]
Language: English
Character set encoding: UTF-8
Which statement below best describes George
Waring’s approach to solving the problems of
water-borne illness?
Waring is going with his “gut,” because he
believes that instincts and emotions are
the best guides for action.
Waring efficiently and thoroughly lays
out the case for why the problems are
too large and overwhelming to be solved:
people should just move out of cities
back to their farms.
Waring has gathered the testimonies of
people who live in densely populated
areas in order to learn how they
themselves have solved their problems.
Waring exhibits the Industrial Age’s
increased respect for and reliance on
science and the scientific method.
Question 35 (1 point)
# ”
The employees of Pullman wrote to the
governor of Illinois because
governors and politicians were always on
the side of labor during the Gilded Age
and could be counted on for help.
the workers at Pullman wanted to
announce their planned Socialist
the workers’ efforts at negotiation with
Mr. Pullman and his vice president, Mr.
Wickes, were continually rebuffed.
Governor Altgeld grew up in Pullman.
Question 36 (1 point)
# ”
What is the best interpretation of Governor
Altgeld’s statement, “They do not stand on the
same footing with you, so that much must be
The workers who went on strike at the
Pullman plant are men of lesser character
than a successful businessman, such as
George Pullman.
The workers are uneducated and should
be forgiven if they do not understand the
reasonableness and intent of Mr.
Pullman’s astute business decisions.
The workers at Pullman are hardworking
and noble souls and Mr. Pullman doesn’t
measure up to them at all.
Mr. Pullman should acknowledge the
advantages of money, power, and
influence he has over the workers and
therefore forgive the workers if some of
their actions do not make sense to him.
Question 37 (1 point)
# ”
Document 2
George Pullman’s Response to Striking Workers
In the first week of May last there were
employed in the car manufacturing department
at Pullman, Ill., about 3,100 persons. On May 7,
a committee of the workmen had an interview
by arrangement with Mr. Wickes, vicepresident, at which the principal subject of
discussion related to wages, but minor
grievances as to shop were also presented, and
it was agreed that another meeting should be
held on the 9th of May, at which all the
grievances should be presented in writing. The
second meeting was held. As to the complaints
on all matters except wages, it was arranged
that a formal and thorough investigation should
be made by Mr. Wickes, to be begun the next
day, and full redress was assured to the
committee as to all con-plaints proved to be
well founded.
The absolute necessity of the last reduction in
wages, under the existing condition of the
business of car manufacturing, had been
explained to the committee, and they were
insisting upon a restoration of the wage scale of
the first half of 1893, when Mr. Pullman
entered the room and addressed the committee,
speaking, in substance as follows:
“At the commencement of the very serious
depression last year, we were employing at
Pullman 5,816 men, and paying out in wages
there $305,000 a month. Negotiations with
intending purchasers of railway equipment that
were then pending for new work were stopped
by them, orders already given by others were
canceled, and we were obliged to lay off, as you
are aware, a large number of men in every
department, so that by November 1, 1893,
there were only about 2,000 men in all
departments, or about one third of the normal
number. I realized the necessity for the most
strenuous exertions to procure work
immediately, without which there would be
great embarrassment, not only to the
employees and their families at Pullman, but
also to those living in the immediate vicinity,
including between 700 and 800 employees who
had purchased homes and to whom
employment was actually necessary to enable
them to complete their payments.
“I canvassed the matter thoroughly with the
manager of the works and instructed him to
cause the men to be assured that the company
would do everything in its power to meet the
competition which was sure to occur because of
the great number of large car manufacturers
that were in the same condition, and that were
exceedingly anxious to keep their men
employed. I knew that if there was any work to
be let, bids for it would be made upon a much
lower basis than ever before. (NOTE. The selling
prices of passenger, baggage, box, refrigerator
and street cars in the last two years have fallen
by percentages, varying in the separate classes,
from 17 to 28, the average reduction, taking the
five classes together, being 24 percent.)
“The result of this discussion was a revision in
piecework prices, which, in the absence of any
information to the contrary, I supposed to be
acceptable to the men under the circumstances.
Under these conditions, and with lower prices
upon all materials, I personally undertook the
work of the lettings of cars, and by making
lower bids than other manufacturers I secured
work enough to gradually increase our force
from 2,000 up to about 4,200, the number
employed, according to the April pay rolls, in all
capacities at Pullman.
“This result has not been accomplished merely
by reduction in wages, but the company has
borne its full share by eliminating from its
estimates the use of capital and machinery, and
in many cases going even below that and taking
work at considerable loss, notably the 55 Long
Island cars, which was the first large order of
passenger cars let since the great depression
and which was sought for by practically all the
leading car builders in the country. My anxiety
to secure that order, so as to put as many men
at work as possible, was such that I put in a bid
at more than $300 per car less than the actual
cost to the company. The 300 stock cars built
for the Northwestern road and the 250
refrigerator cars now under construction for the
same company will result in a loss of at least
$12 per car, and the 25 cars just built for the
Lake Street elevated road show a loss of $79
per car. I mention these particulars so that you
may understand what the company has done
for the mutual interests and to secure for the
people at Pullman and vicinity the benefit of the
disbursement of the large sums of money
involved in these and similar contracts, which
can be kept up only by the procurement of new
orders for cars, as you know, about three
fourths of the men must depend upon contract
work for employment.
“I can only assure you that if this company now
restores the wages of the first half of 1893, as
you have asked, it would be a most unfortunate
thing for the men, because there is less than
sixty days of contract work in sight in the shops
under all orders and there is absolutely no
possibility, in the present condition of affairs
throughout the country, of getting any more
orders for work at prices measured by the
wages of May 1893. Under such a scale the
works would necessarily close down and the
great majority of the employees be put in
idleness, a contingency I am using my best
efforts to avoid.
“To further benefit the people of Pullman and
vicinity we concentrated all the work that we
could command at that point, by closing our
Detroit shops entirely and laying off a large
number of men at our other repair shops, and
gave to Pullman the repair of all cars that could
be taken care of there.
“Also, for the further benefit of our people at
Pullman we have carried on a large system of
internal improvements, have expended nearly
$160,000 since August last in work which,
under normal conditions, would have been
spread over one or two years. The policy would
be to continue this class of work to as great an
extent as possible, provided, of course, the
Pullman men show a proper appreciation of the
situation by doing whatever they can to help
themselves to tide over the hard times which
are so seriously felt in every part of the country.
“There has been some complaint made about
rents. As to this I would say that the return to
this company on the capital invested in the
Pullman tenements for the last year and the
year before was 3.82 percent. There are
hundreds of tenements in Pullman renting for
from $6 to $9 per month, and the tenants are
relieved from the usual expenses of exterior
cleaning and the removal of garbage, which is
done by the company. . . .”
On the question of rents, while, as stated
above, they make a manifestly inadequate
return upon the investment, so that it is clear
they are not, in fact, at an arbitrarily high figure,
it may be added that it would not be possible in
a business sense so to deal with them.
The renting of the dwellings and the
employment of workmen at Pullman are in no
way tied together. The dwellings and
apartments are offered for rent in competition
with those of the immediately adjacent towns
of Kensington, Roseland, and Gano. They are let
alike to Pullman employees and to very many
others in no way connected with the company,
and, on the other hand, many Pullman
employees rent or own their homes in those
adjacent towns. The average rental at Pullman is
at the rate of $3 per room per month. There are
1,200 tenements, of varying numbers or rooms,
the average monthly rental of which is $10; of
these there are 600 the average monthly rental
of which is $8. In very many cases men with
families pay a rent seemingly large for a
workman, but which is in fact reduced in part,
and often wholly repaid, by the subrents paid by
single men as lodgers.
On May 10, the day after the second
conference above mentioned, work went on at
Pullman as usual, and the only incident of note
was the beginning by Mr. Wickes, assisted by
Mr. Brown, the general manager of the
company, of the promised formal investigation
at Pullman of the shop complaints.
A large meeting of employees had been held the
night before at Kensington, which, as was
understood by the company, accepted the
necessity of the situation preventing an
increase of wages; but at a meeting of the local
committee held during the night of May 10 a
strike was decided upon, and accordingly the
next day about 2,500 of the employees quit
their work, leaving about 600 at work, of whom
very few were skilled workmen. As it was found
impracticable to keep the shops in operation
with a force thus diminished and disorganized,
the next day those remaining were necessarily
laid off, and no work has since been done in the
The pay rolls at the time amounted to about
$7,000 a day, and were reduced $5,500 by the
strike, so that during the period of a little more
than six weeks which has elapsed the
employees who quit their work have deprived
themselves and their comrades of earnings of
more than $200,000.
Source: Reply of the Pullman Company, U.S.
Strike Commission, Report and Testimony on
the Chicago Strike of 1894 (Washington D.C.:
Government Printing Office, 1895), 578-80.
Reprinted in Thomas G. Manning, The Chicago
Strike of 1894 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, 1960), 4-7. Copyright 1998-2013
American Social History Productions, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Last Updated: June 14, 2013.
Who or what does Pullman blame for the plight
of workers in Pullman?
The workers are being manipulated by
Governor Altgeld because he wants the
votes of the working-class people of
Mr. Pullman accepts full responsibility for
his poor business decisions that set the
company on the path of struggle and
Governmental regulations increased
costs, so Mr. Pullman had to lay off
workers and decrease the wages of
Foreign agitators are spreading
discontent among the honest workers of
Question 38 (1 point)
# ”
The outcome of the Pullman Strike is best
summarized by which statement?
The federal government established itself
as the protector of big business and was
most concerned with the uninterrupted
flow of interstate commerce.
The federal government established its
role as the protector of workers and their
rights and workplace conditions.
The American Railway Union thrived as a
result of the successful strike at Pullman,
thereby ensuring the safety and job
security of generations of Pullman
employees and workers in related fields.
The American Railway Union thrived as a
result of the successful strike at Pullman,
thereby driving up costs to
manufacturers, who lost their competitive
Question 39 (1 point)
# ”
Document 1
Letters Regarding the Pullman Strike of 1894
Kensington, Ill.,
August 17, 1894.
To His Excellency, the Governor of the State of
We, the people of Pullman, who, by the greed
and oppression of George M. Pullman, have
been brought to a condition where starvation
stares us in the face, do hereby appeal to you
for aid in this our hour of need. We have been
refused employment and have no means of
leaving this vicinity, and our families are
starving. Our places have been filled with
workmen from all over the United States,
brought here by the Pullman Company, and the
surplus were turned away to walk the streets
and starve also. There are over 1600 families
here in destitution and want, and their
condition is pitiful. We have exhausted all the
means at our command to feed them, and we
now make this appeal to you as a last resource.
Trusting that God will influence you in our
behalf and that you will give this your prompt
attention, we remain,
Yours in distress,
August 19, 1894.
To George M. Pullman, President Pullman
Palace Car Co., Chicago:
Sir:—I have received numerous reports to the
effect that there is great distress at Pullman. Today I received a formal appeal as Governor from
a committee of the Pullman people for aid. They
state that sixteen hundred families including
women and children, are starving; that they
cannot get work and have not the means to go
elsewhere; that your company has brought men
from all over the United States to fill their
places. Now these people live in your town and
were your employees. Some of them worked for
your company for many years. They must be
people of industry and character or you would
not have kept them. Many of them have
practically given their lives to you. It is claimed
they struck because after years of toil their
loaves were so reduced that their children went
hungry. Assuming that they were wrong and
foolish, they had yet served you long and well
and you must feel some interest in them. They
do not stand on the same footing with you, so
that much must be overlooked. The State of
Illinois has not the least desire to meddle in the
affairs of your company, but it cannot allow a
whole community within its borders to perish of
The local overseer of the poor has been
appealed to, but there is a limit to what he can
do. I cannot help them very much at present. So
unless relief comes from some other source I
shall either have to call an extra session of the
Legislature to make special appropriations, or
else issue an appeal to the humane people of
the State to give bread to your recent
employees. It seems to me that you would
prefer to relieve the situation yourself,
especially as it has just cost the State upwards
of fifty thousand dollars to protect your
property, and both the State and the public
have suffered enormous loss and expense on
account of disturbances that grew out of
trouble between your company and its
workmen. I am going to Chicago to-night to
make a personal investigation before taking any
official action. I will be at my office in the Unity
block at 10 a.m. to-morrow, and shall be glad to
hear from you if you care to make any reply.
JOHN P. ALTGELD, Governor.
August 21st 1894.
Mr. George M. Pullman, President Pullman Car
Company, Chicago, Ill.:
Sir – I have examined the conditions at Pullman
yesterday, visited even the kitchens and
bedrooms of many of the people. Two
representatives of your company were with me
and we found the distress as great as it was
represented. The men are hungry and the
women and children are actually suffering. They
have been living on charity for a number of
months and it is exhausted. Men who had
worked for your company for more than ten
years had to apply to the relief society in two
weeks after the work stopped.
I learn from your manager that last spring there
were 3,260 people on the pay roll; yesterday
there were 2,200 at work, but over 600 of
these are new men, so that only about 1,600 of
the old employees have been taken back, thus
leaving over 1600 of the old employees who
have not been taken back, a few hundred have
left, the remainder have nearly all applied for
work, but were told that they were not needed.
These are utterly destitute. The relief
committee on last Saturday gave out two
pounds of oat meal and two pounds of corn
meal to each family. But even the relief
committee has exhausted its resources.
Something must be done at once. The case
differs from instances of destitution found
elsewhere, for generally there is somebody in
the neighborhood able to give relief; this is not
the case at Pullman. Even those who have gone
to work are so exhausted that they cannot help
their neighbors if they would. I repeat now that
it seems to me your company cannot afford to
have me appeal to the charity and humanity of
the State to save the lives of your old employes.
Four-fifths of those people are women and
children. No matter what caused this distress, it
must be met.
If you will allow me, I will make this suggestion:
If you had shut down your works last fall when
you say business was poor, you would not have
expected to get any rent for your tenements.
Now, while a dollar is a large sum to each of
these people, all the rent now due you is a
comparatively small matter to you. If you would
cancel all rent to October 1st, you would be as
well off as if you had shut down. This would
enable those who are at work to meet their
most pressing wants. Then if you cannot give
work to all why work some half-time so that all
can at least get something to eat for their
families. This will give immediate relief to the
whole situation. And then by degrees assist as
many to go elsewhere as desire to do so, and all
to whom you cannot give work. In this way
something like a normal condition could be reestablished at Pullman before winter and you
would not be out any more than you would
have been had you shut down a year ago.
I will be at the Unity block for several hours and
will be glad to see you if you care to make any
Yours, respectfully,
Chicago, August 21st, 1894.
George M. Pullman, Esq., President Pullman
Palace Car Company, City.
Sir: I have your answer to my communication of
this morning. I see by it that your company
refuses to do anything toward relieving the
situation at Pullman. It is true that Mr. Wickes
offered to take me to Pullman and show me
around. I told him that I had no objections to his
going, but that I doubted the wisdom of my
going under anybody’s wing. I was, however,
met at the depot by two of your
representatives, both able men, who
accompanied me everywhere. I took pains to
have them present in each case. I also called at
your office and got what information they could
give me there, so that your company was
represented and heard, and no man there
questioned either the condition of the extent of
the suffering. If you will make the round I made,
go into the houses of the people, meet them
face to face and talk with them, you will be
convinced that none of them had $1,300, or any
other some of money only a few weeks ago.
I cannot enter into a discussion with you as to
the merits of the controversy between you and
your former workmen.
It is not my business to fix the moral
responsibility in this case. There are nearly six
thousand people suffering for the want of food
– they were your employees – four-fifths of
them women and children – some of these
people have worked for you for more than
twelve years. I assumed that even if they were
wrong and had been foolish, you would not be
willing to see them perish. I also assumed that
as the State had just been to a large expense to
protect your property you would not want to
have the public shoulder the burden of relieving
distress in your town.
As you refuse to do anything to relieve
suffering in this case, I am compelled to appeal
to the humanity of the people of Illinois to do
Respectfully yours,
Source: John Altgeld, Live Questions (Chicago:
George S. Bowen and Son, 1899).
Found at:
Created by the American Social History Project
/ Center for Media and Learning (Graduate
Center, CUNY)and the Roy Rosenzweig Center
for History and New Media (George Mason
Copyright 1998-2013 American Social History
Productions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Last Updated: June 14, 2013.
The main cause of the firings and reduction in
wages for Pullman workers was
that George Pullman disdained immigrant
that the recession of 1893 caused a
severe drop in orders for Pullman cars.
the Great Depression.
fallout from the Haymarket Affair.
Question 40 (1 point)
” Listen
Document 3
John Muir, Man’s Place in the Universe, 1916
The world, we are told, was made especially for
man — a presumption not supported by all the
facts. A numerous class of men are painfully
astonished whenever they find anything, living
or dead, in all God’s universe, which they
cannot eat or render in some way what they call
useful to themselves. They have precise
dogmatic insight into the intentions of the
Creator, and it is hardly possible to be guilty of
irreverence in speaking of their God any more
than of heathen idols. He is regarded as a
civilized, law-abiding gentlemen in favor either
of a republican form of government or of a
limited monarchy; believes in the literature and
language of England; is a warm supporter of the
English constitution and Sunday schools and
missionary societies; and is as purely a
manufactured article as any puppet at a halfpenny theater.
With such views of the Creator it is, of course,
not surprising that erroneous views should be
entertained of the creation. To such properly
trimmed people, the sheep, for example, is an
easy problem — food and clothing “for us,”
eating grass and daisies white by divine
appointment for this predestined purpose, on
perceiving the demand for wool that would be
occasioned by the eating of the apple in the
Garden of Eden.
In the same pleasant plan, whales are
storehouses of oil for us, to help out the stars in
lighting our dark ways until the discovery of the
Pennsylvania oil wells. Among plants, hemp, to
say nothing of the cereals, is a case of evident
destination for ships’ rigging, wrapping
packages, and hanging the wicked. Cotton is
another plain case of clothing. Iron was made
for hammers and ploughs, and lead for bullets;
all intended for us. And so of other small
handfuls of insignificant things.
But if we should ask these profound expositors
of God’s intentions, How about those maneating animals — lions, tigers, alligators — which
smack their lips over raw man? Or about those
myriads of noxious insects that destroy labor
and drink his blood? Doubtless man was
intended for food and drink for all these? Oh
no! Not at all! These are unresolvable
difficulties connected with Eden’s apple and the
Devil. Why does water drown its lord? Why do
so many minerals poison him? Why are so many
plants and fishes deadly enemies? Why is the
lord of creation subjected to the same laws of
life as his subjects? Oh, all these things are
satanic, or in some way connected with the first
Now, it never seems to occur to these farseeing teachers that Nature’s object in making
animals and plants might possibly be first of all
the happiness of each one of them, not the
creation of all for the happiness of one. Why
should man value himself as more than a small
part of the one great unit of creation? And what
creature of all that the Lord has taken the pains
to make is not essential to the completeness of
that unit — the cosmos? The universe would be
incomplete without man; but it would also be
incomplete without the smallest
transmicroscopic creature that dwells beyond
our conceitful eyes and knowledge.
From the dust of the earth, from the common
elementary fund, the Creator has made Homo
sapiens. From the same material he has made
every other creature, however noxious and
insignificant to us. They are earth-born
companions and our fellow mortals. The
fearfully good, the orthodox, of this laborious
patch-work of modern civilization cry “Heresy”
on every one whose sympathies reach a single
hair’s breadth beyond the boundary epidermis
of our own species. Not content with taking all
of earth, they also claim the celestial country as
the only ones who possess the kind of souls for
which that imponderable empire was planned.
This star, our own good earth, made many a
successful journey around the heavens ere man
was made, and whole kingdoms of creatures
enjoyed existence and returned to dust ere man
appeared to claim them. After human beings
have also played their part in Creation’s plan,
they too may disappear without any general
burning or extraordinary commotion whatever.
Plants are credited with but dim and uncertain
sensation, and minerals with positively none at
all. But why may not even a mineral
arrangement of matter be endowed with
sensation of a kind that we in our blind
exclusive perfection can have no manner of
communication with?
But I have wandered from my subject. I stated a
page or two back that man claimed the earth
was made for him and I was going to say that
venomous beasts, thorny plants, and deadly
diseases of certain parts of the earth prove that
the whole world was not made for him. When
an animal from a tropical climate is taken to
high latitudes, it may perish of cold, and we say
that such an animal was never intended for so
severe a climate. But when man betakes himself
to sickly parts of the tropics and perishes, he
cannot see that he was never intended for such
deadly climates. No, he will rather accuse the
first mother of the cause of the difficulty,
though she may never have seen a fever
district; or will consider it a providential
chastisement for some self-invented form of
Furthermore, all uneatable and uncivilized
animals, and all plants which carry prickles, are
deplorable evils which, according to closes
researches of clergy, require the cleansing
chemistry of universal planetary combustion.
But more than aught else mankind requires
burning, as being in great part wicked, and if
that transmundane furnace can be so applied
and regulated as to smelt and purify us into
conformity with the rest of the terrestrial
creation, then the tophetization of the erratic
genius Homo were a consummation devoutly to
be prayed for. But, glad to leave these
ecclesiastical fires and blunders, I joyfully return
to the immortal truth and immortal beauty of
Source: John Muir, from A Thousand-Mile Walk
to the Gulf (1916),
Accessed at Sierra Club John Muir online
According to John Muir, what do a “numerous
class of men” believe about the world and its
natural resources?
Natural resources have no value at all.
The value of natural resources lies only in
what they provide to men, men of
business and industry, especially.
Women are better in touch with the
natural world than men.
Natural resources are God’s sacred
creation, and should not be touched or
harmed in any way, only revered from
Question 41 (1 point)
# ”
Document 2
Redwood lumberjacks, early 20th century.
Click to view larger image.
Source: Loggers and a giant Redwood : Horace
According to John Muir, what is the purpose of
natural resources?
The value of natural resources lies only in
what they provide to men, men of
business and industry, especially.
The unpredictability of nature helps
teach people to be aware that dangers
are everywhere and they must be
Nature’s mountains, rivers, blooms — all
of its bounty — are a kind of cathedral
that people should visit regularly in order
to cleanse their spirits and nurture their
The nation’s natural resources need to be
used to make the machinery and
weaponry that will allow America to
spread its religion, culture and economic
system to all corners of the world, with
force if necessary.
Question 42 (1 point)
# ”
Document 4
Theodore Roosevelt, selection from speech to
the Conference of Governors at the White
House, 1908
Governors of the several States; and
I welcome you to this Conference at the White
House. You have come hither at my request, so
that we may join together to consider the
question of the conservation and use of the
great fundamental sources of wealth of this
So vital is this question, that for the first time in
our history the chief executive officers of the
States separately, and of the States together
forming the Nation, have met to consider it. It is
the chief material question that confronts us,
second only–and second always–to the great
fundamental questions of morality.
With the governors come men from each State
chosen for their special acquaintance with the
terms of the problem that is before us. Among
them are experts in natural resources and
representatives of national organizations
concerned in the development and use of these
resources; the Senators and Representatives in
Congress; the Supreme Court, the Cabinet, and
the Inland Waterways Commission have
likewise been invited to the Conference, which
is therefore national in a peculiar sense.
This Conference on the conservation of natural
resources is in effect a meeting of the
representatives of all the people of the United
States called to consider the weightiest problem
now before the Nation; and the occasion for the
meeting lies in the fact that the natural
resources of our country are in danger of
exhaustion if we permit the old wasteful
methods of exploiting them longer to continue.
With the rise of peoples from savagery to
civilization, and with the consequent growth in
the extent and variety of the needs of the
average man, there comes a steadily increasing
growth of the amount demanded by this
average man from the actual resources of the
country. And yet, rather curiously, at the same
time that there comes that increase in what the
average man demands from the resources, he is
apt to grow to lose the sense of his dependence
upon nature. He lives in big cities. He deals in
industries that do not bring him in close touch
with nature. He does not realize the demands
he is making upon nature. For instance, he finds,
as he has found before in many parts of this
country, that it is cheaper to build his house of
concrete than of wood, learning in this way only
that he has allowed the woods to become
exhausted. That is happening, as you know, in
parts of this country at this very time
Savages, and very primitive peoples generally,
concern themselves only with superficial natural
resources; with those which they obtain from
the actual surface of the ground. As peoples
become a little less primitive, their industries,
although in a rude manner, are extended to
resources below the surface; then, with what
we call civilization and the extension of
knowledge, more resources come into use,
industries are multiplied, and foresight begins to
become a necessary and prominent factor in
life. Crops are cultivated; animals are
domesticated; and metals are mastered. We can
not do any of these things without foresight,
and we can not, when the nation becomes fully
civilized and very rich, continue to be civilized
and rich unless the nation shows more foresight
than we are showing at this moment as a
Source: The Evolution of the Conservation
Movement, 1850-1920, Washington: G.P.O.,
What is the irony, or unexpected reality, that
President Roosevelt presents in his speech to
the nation’s governors in 1908?
As modern living pulls people further
away from a connection with the natural
world, modern communities actually rely
on natural resources more than ever.
The country may be absorbing millions of
immigrants, but through the miracles of
modern technology, fewer resources are
Women are not allowed to vote, but
without their energy and skills, the nation
could not have achieved such a high
status in the world.
America may occupy a large landmass,
but there are hardly any natural
resources on it to utilize.
Question 43 (1 point)
# ”
Document 1
John Muir and President Theodore Roosevelt at
Yosemite Valley, California.
Click to view larger image.
Source: Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir,
1903: Library of Congress
Which “person” below best exhibits the ideals
of a “pragmatic conservationist”?
the businessman who believes that
natural resources are not useful unless
they are harvested and utilized to create
something new or power the modern
the naturalist who believes it is a kind of
“sin” to impede on nature’s processes by
damming up a river, forever altering
ecosystems downstream, for example
a conservative leader who holds tightly
to traditional religious principles, but
who recognizes that the world is
changing around him and he must make
room for new ways of thinking about
societal issues
a naturalist who recognizes that the
modern world, with its cities, industries,
and technology, requires a lot of natural
resources to sustain, and the best idea is
to protect and manage the nation’s
resources for the benefit of the most
people in the society
Question 44 (1 point)
# ”
Document 1
Army Recruitment Poster, “Destroy the Mad
Brute,” ca. 1917
Click to view larger image.
A drooling, mustachioed ape wielding a club
bearing the German word “kultur” and wearing
a “pickelhaube” helmet with the word
“militarism” is walking onto the shore of
America while holding a half-naked woman in
his grasp (possibly meant to depict Liberty).
Source: “Destroy this Mad Brute”: Library of
Which statement best captures the message
expressed in Document 1?
America must stay out of the war
because the military industrial complex is
corrupt and concerned for its own
interests, not that of the public.
Blonde American women will be
particularly vulnerable if Germany wins
the war.
America must stay out of this European
war, because war turns men into violent
Despite the existence of the vast Atlantic
Ocean, Americans and their cherished
liberties and freedoms are at risk of being
suppressed by the evils of Germany’s
violent military culture.
Question 45 (1 point)
# ”
Document 2
The United States Congress, Sedition Act (a
portion of the amendment to Section 3 and
Section 4 of the Espionage Act), 1918
Sec. 3.
Whoever, when the United States is at war,
shall willfully make or convey false reports or
false statements with intent to interfere with
the operation or success of the military or naval
forces of the United States, or to promote the
success of its enemies, or shall willfully make or
convey false reports or false statements, or say
or do anything except by way of bona fide and
not disloyal advice to an investor or investors,
with intent to obstruct the sale by the United
States of bonds or other securities of the United
States or the making of loans by or to the
United States, and whoever when the United
States is at war, shall willfully cause or attempt
to cause, or incite or attempt to incite,
insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of
duty, in the military or naval forces of the
United States, or shall willfully obstruct or
attempt to obstruct the recruiting or enlistment
services of the United States, and whoever,
when the United States is at war, shall willfully
utter, print, write or publish any disloyal,
profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about
the form of government of the United States or
the Constitution of the United States, or the
military or naval forces of the United States, or
the flag of the United States, or the uniform of
the Army or Navy of the United States into
contempt, scorn, contumely, or disrepute, or
shall willfully utter, print, write, or publish any
language intended to incite, provoke, or
encourage resistance to the United States, or to
promote the cause of its enemies, or shall
willfully display the flag of any foreign enemy,
or shall willfully by utterance, writing, printing,
publication, or language spoken, urge, incite, or
advocate any curtailment of production in this
country of any thing or things, product or
products, necessary or essential to the
prosecution of the war in which the United
States may be engaged, with intent by such
curtailment to cripple or hinder the United
States in the prosecution of war, and whoever
shall willfully advocate, teach, defend, or
suggest the doing of any of the acts or things in
this section enumerated, and whoever shall by
word or act support or favor the cause of any
country with which the United States is at war
or by word or act oppose the cause of the
United States therein, shall be punished by a
fine of not more than $10,000 or the
imprisonment for not more than twenty years,
or both: Provided, That any employee or official
of the United States Government who commits
any disloyal act or utters any unpatriotic or
disloyal language, or who, in an abusive and
violent manner criticizes the Army or Navy or
the flag of the United States shall be at once
dismissed from the service. . . .
Sec. 4.
When the United States is at war, the
Postmaster General may, upon evidence
satisfactory to him that any person or concern
is using the mails in violation of any of the
provisions of this Act, instruct the postmaster at
any post office at which mail is received
addressed to such person or concern to return
to the postmaster at the office at which they
were originally mailed all letters or other matter
so addressed, with the words “Mail to this
address undeliverable under Espionage Act”
plainly written or stamped upon the outside
thereof, and all such letters or other matter so
returned to such postmasters shall be by them
returned to the senders thereof under such
regulations as the Postmaster General may
Approved, May 16, 1918.
Source: United States, Statutes at Large,
Washington, D.C., 1918, Vol. 40, p. 553ff.A
portion of the amendment to Section 3 of the
Espionage Act of June 15, 1917. From The
United States Statutes at Large, Vol. 40 (April
1917-March 1919). Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office, 1919, pp. 553554. Online at
Due to the passage of the Espionage and
Sedition Acts of 1917-1918,
German-style beer became illegal in the
United States.
it became illegal to criticize government
leaders and war policies.
the sale of war bonds skyrocketed,
providing plenty of support for America’s
war efforts in Europe.
the office of Communication and
Propaganda was closed forever.
Question 46 (1 point)
# ”
According to the language of the U.S. Sedition
Act, what is the potential punishment for
someone who stands outside an army
recruitment office with a sign that expresses
opposition to the war?
There is no punishment for someone who
exercises the right to free speech, which
is guaranteed by the First Amendment of
the United States Constitution.
The person would face up to twenty
years in prison and a $10,000 fine.
Army recruitment offices are exempt from
the restrictions put forth by the law.
The person would be tried and, if found
guilty, put to death for treason against
the United States of America.
Question 47 (1 point)
# ”
Eugene Debs, the popular Socialist leader and
union activist, was convicted and sent to jail
he voiced his opposition to America’s
entry into World War I.
bomb-making supplies were found in his
home in Terre Haute, Indiana.
he urged Communists to violently take
over factories and the other means of
even though he espoused pacifist views,
he physically abused his wife and
Question 48 (1 point)
# ”
Conservatives of the 1920s reacted strongly
against all of these except
foreign immigrants.
Christian fundamentalism.
the growth of communism.
evolutionary science.
Question 49 (1 point)
# ”
What is an “old-stock American” according to
Hiram Evans?
a person who welcomes immigrants as
proof of the American promise of
opportunity for all
a person who values science and
education and is open to new ways of
thinking, just like the Founding Fathers
someone who, because of the wisdom of
age, takes time to make decisions and act
on them.
a true American, of Nordic descent and
Protestant religion, who is at war with
alien and dangerous ideas and attitudes
Question 50 (1 point)
# ”
Document 1
Hiram W. Evans, “The Klan’s Fight for
Americanism,” 1926
The Klan, therefore, has now come to speak for
the great mass of Americans of the old pioneer
stock. We believe that it does fairly and
faithfully represent them, and our proof lies in
their support. To understand the Klan, then, it is
necessary to understand the character and
present mind of the mass of old-stock
Americans. The mass, it must be remembered,
as distinguished from the intellectually
mongrelized “Liberals.” These are, in the first
place, a blend of various peoples of the socalled Nordic race, the race which, with all its
faults, has given the world almost the whole of
modern civilization. The Klan does not try to
represent any people but these….
These Nordic Americans for the last generation
have found themselves increasingly
uncomfortable, and finally deeply distressed.
There appeared first confusion in thought and
opinion, a groping and hesitancy about national
affairs and private life alike, in sharp contrast to
the clear, straightforward purposes of our
earlier years. There was futility in religion, too,
which was in many ways even more distressing.
Presently we began to find that we were
dealing with strange ideas; policies that always
sounded well but somehow always made us still
more uncomfortable. Finally came the moral
breakdown that has been going on for two
decades. One by one all our traditional moral
standards went by the boards or were so
disregarded that they ceased to be binding. The
sacredness of our Sabbath, of our homes, of
chastity, and finally even of our right to teach
our own children in our own schools
fundamental facts and truths were torn away
from us. Those who maintained the old
standards did so only in the face of constant
The old-stock Americans are learning, however.
They have begun to arm themselves for this
new type of warfare. Most important, they have
broken away from the fetters of the false ideals
and philanthropy which put aliens ahead of their
own children and their own race…. One more
point about the present attitude of the oldstock American: he has revived and increased
his long-standing distrust of the Roman Catholic
Church. It is for this that the native Americans,
and the Klan as their leader, are most often
denounced as intolerant and prejudiced….
The Ku Klux Klan, in short, is an organization
which gives expression, direction and purpose
tithe most vital instincts, hopes, and
resentments of the old-stock Americans,
provides them with leadership, and is enlisting
and preparing them for militant, constructive
action toward fulfilling their racial and national
destiny…. The Klan literally is once more the
embattled American farmer and artisan,
coordinated into a disciplined and growing
army, and launched upon a definite crusade for
Americanism! …
Thus the Klan goes back to the American racial
instincts, and to the common sense which is
their first product, as the basis of its beliefs and
methods…. There are three of these great racial
instincts, vital elements in both the historic and
the present attempts to build an America which
shall fulfill the aspirations and justify the
heroism of the men who made the nation.
These are the instincts of loyalty to the white
race, to the traditions of America, and to the
spirit of Protestantism, which has been an
essential part of Americanism ever since the
days of Roanoke and Plymouth Rock. They are
condensed into the Klan slogan: “Native, white,
Protestant supremacy.”
Source: Hiram W. Evans, from “The Klan’s Fight
for Americanism,” North American Review, 223
(March 1926): 38-39.
(Accessed in the Documentary Reader that
accompanies the textbook, Chapter 25: “The
Modern Temper.”) Reprinted with permission.
What is an “intellectually mongrelized ‘Liberal,’
according to Hiram Evans?
civilized, purposeful, and straightforward
in actions and thoughts
descended from Nordic peoples and
distrustful of Catholics
hesitant in thought and action and
corrupted by alien cultures and ideas
Question 51 (1 point)
# ”
Document 2
Ku Klux Klan Parade, Washington, D.C.
(photograph), 1926
Click to view larger image.
Source: Ku Klux Klan Parade 9/13/1926 Library of Congress
Which statement below best captures the
purpose of the Ku Klux Klan’s march on
Washington, D.C., photographed on September
13, 1926?
The march was to honor the last
remaining members of the Ku Klux Klan.
The Klan march on Washington in 1926
was held to pay tribute to the veterans of
World War I.
The Ku Klux Klan’s purpose was to
illustrate its connection to ancient rites
and rituals of America’s Native
The Ku Klux Klan wanted Washington
politicians to better take notice of the
group’s widespread popularity, strength,
and commitment.
Question 52 (1 point)
# ”
Document 1
LeRoy Hankel, “Falling Prices after the Crash,”
interviewed for Living History Farm by Bill
Ganzel, 2003.
“I was quite young at that time, but I still
remember the crash. The Depression actually
started in ’29. That’s when that stock market
and everything went. Then everything dropped.
Corn, I seen on the board in Hampton – that’s
where we lived at that time when it started –
nine-cents a bushel. But very little of it was sold
at nine, most of it was sold at 10- and 11[cents]. And everything just went all to pieces.
Eggs was 10-cents a dozen. And your wheat, I
really don’t know just what the wheat did,
dropped to. My memory tells me somewhere
around 70-cents. It went down to about 70cents a bushel… It just dropped to nothing. We
had, I believe Dad had over 100 acres of corn
and it all went for around 10-cents a bushel.
Land prices dropped down from 200-250
dollars an acre. It was getting down to $40. And
nobody, nobody sold and nobody bought. There
was nothing going on at all. And, everything just
went all to pieces.”
Find the complete interview with video at this
website, Wessels Living History Farm in York,
Source: Written by Bill Ganzel of the Ganzel
Group. First written and published in 2003.
“Wessels Living History Farm” website,
designed to provide learners an in-depth look at
farming in the 1920s and beyond. The site can
be found at
Bill Ganzel served as executive producer, writer,
designer and editor of the site, particularly the
1930s and 1940s sections of it.
According to Mr. Hankel, all below are evidence
of falling commodity prices except
Corn sold for 10-11 cents per bushel
after 1929
Land prices dropped to around $40/acre.
There was lots of market activity,
because people could now afford to buy
so much more farm products.
Eggs sold for as low as 10 cents/dozen.
Question 53 (1 point)
# ”
The primary action created by the Agricultural
Adjustment Act of 1933 was to
force farmers to contribute 75 percent of
their crop to the Department of
Agriculture, which then distributed it
fairly across the nation.
force farmers to grow more food so that
hungry kids in the cities could get enough
to eat.
pay farmers to reduce the amount of crop
they produced.
enforce the new law that stated farmers
needed to increase the use of fertilizers
and pesticides, so that more crop
survived and was able to be harvested.
Question 54 (1 point)
# ”
Why didn’t the government just arrange to have
excess food commodities shipped to places
where people didn’t have enough to eat during
the Great Depression?
Transportation systems during the 1930’s
had basically shut down all over the
The government’s goal, via the AAA, was
to preserve the idea of a market economy
for agricultural products, not just to feed
the hungry.
People were poor, but they always had
enough to eat.
The food would spoil en route.
Question 55 (1 point)
# ”
Document 2
Burial of Government Purchased and
Condemned Livestock (photograph), 1934, and
A Slaughtered Pig (photograph), ca. 1933
Click to view larger image.
Source – Pigs eating on a farm – Library of
Click to view larger image.
Source: A Slaughtered Pig – FDR Library
A Slaughtered Pig (ca. 1933). President Franklin
Delano Roosevelt’s Agricultural Adjustment Act
of 1933 reduced hogs and other food in order
to increase agricultural prices. The program was
a success, but the idea of slaughtering livestock
when there were so many who were hungry
drew criticism. The AAA (1933) was ruled
unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1937.
A new Agricultural Adjustment Act was then
passed in 1938.
What is happening in the pictures that make up
Document 2?
Farmers had to destroy their starving
livestock: the Dust Bowl made grazing
Farmers could no longer afford to feed
their livestock, so they had to slaughter
their animals.
On top of all of the other bad luck during
the Great Depression, a virus spread
across livestock, forcing farmers to
destroy their animals to halt the spread
of the disease.
Farmers destroyed large segments of
their livestock populations due to
government regulations and payments
for crop and commodity reduction.
Question 56 (15 points)
# ”
Alain de Botton on Art as Therapy
STEP # 1: If you have not done so
already – and you should have ! please watch the above video lecture
by author Alain de Botton on how art
can aid us in coping with, or solving,
some of our deepest needs or
problems. The visual arts, I think,
convey universal aspects of humanity.
Listen closely for how he defines the
terms (see below) and how art might
function in assisting us in managing or
answering important human
STEP # 2: Choose any work of art
history, architecture, and music (only
works of art, architecture, or music,
not various informational video clips on
people or events) – preferably your
favorite, the one that interested you
the most – sent out to you through the
“Announcements” tool thus far in the
semester. See also You can write
about all three if you wish to earn
some extra credit on this question. 🙂
STEP # 3: In one comprehensive
paragraph summarize the details of the
work of art, architecture, or music (or
all three) you have chosen and how it
relates to what you have learned thus
far this semester (here you will want to
cite Give Me Liberty! extensively in
your answer).
STEP # 4: In another complete
paragraph, maybe two, explain why
this work of art or architecture
appealed to you. Equally important,
make sure you relate your answer to
one or more of the “Seven Functions
of Art” spelled out by de Botton in
the video lecture. I would suggest, in
addition, that you ask how certain
qualities of the piece contribute to
your understanding. Basically, this
means you should be observant as to
color, types of line, composition those sorts of qualities. The idea here
is based on how the look of the piece
that you have chosen reflects the
theme that you have selected.
Question 57 (30 points)
# ”
STEP # 1: Make sure you have read “The Three
Furies of Libertarianism” and The Righteous
Mind in their entirety. Consider and reflect
upon what you have read in The Righteous
Mind, Give Me Liberty! (especially Chapters 15 21), “The ‘Three Furies of Libertarianism,'” and
any primary source documents that Dr. Barr has
sent you either through D2L or given to you in
class or provided links to in this review. Also,
think about the various matters we have
discussed this semester in the Online
Discussion Forum over the book. Feel free to
include substantial quotations, especially from
The Righteous Mind, and from the primary and
secondary sources in answering the following
questions. Be sure that you make an argument
in your essay and underline your thesis and at
least 10 key terms/people throughout.
ESSAY QUESTION: How might the moral
matrixes, or Moral Foundation Theory, that
Haidt presents in The Righteous Mind, explain,
or enrich your understanding of, three of the
following: COVID Messaging and Vaccine
Hesitancy, Environmentalism, Immigration,
Religion, and American politics more generally
(you can, if you wish, bring in examples from
1863 through the New Deal such as women’s
suffrage, the conquering of the West, the rise of
American empire, and other relevant historical
In your answer, be sure to cite substantial
evidence from The Righteous Mind, and where
appropriate, Give Me Liberty!
Thesis Paragraph # 1
Thesis Paragraph # 2
Thesis Paragraph # 3
You will have more paragraphs, but make
certain that all your work relates back to your
key argument.
Conclusion/List and/or mark 10 key
STEP # 2: Make sure that you
cite/quote extensively from The
Righteous Mind, “The Three Furies of
Libertarianism,” Give Me Liberty! and
any other videos, primary sources,
lectures, that you have learned from
thus far in the semester.
In your written response answers make certain
you cite extensively from Anthem, “The ‘Three
Furies’ of Libertarianism,” Give Me Liberty!, Art
History (from the Announcements), and any
relevant clips located in the question itself.
Feel free to refer to Anthem and Ayn Rand
Materials (Includes Exam at Bottom of Module).
Lastly, a reminder: On Cheating, and a Brief
Tutorial to Help You Understand Plagiarism and
How to Avoid It (Indiana University)
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