This critical response essay is an opportunity for you to reflect on and analyze the key concepts and ideas we have discussed thus far. Papers should be 4-5 double spaced pages in length, typed, with twelve-point font and one-inch margins. Proper footnote citations in Chicago (“Notes and Bibliography” style, are required. You do not need to submit a separate bibliography). Please note that there should be no outside research for these essays
Writing prompt: Colonialism drastically altered Europeans’ relationship to the world around them, and to nature and science in particular. Discuss 1) early modern European understandings of monstrosity and 2) the ways in which contact and exploration in the Americas shaped and was shaped by European ideas of science. Which European ideas continued to influence contact and exploration, and how? What new ideas emerged alongside of colonialism?Mechanics: All papers must be thesis-driven, meaning that your papers should provide an argument in relation to the writing prompt that is supported by examples from the readings, notes, and visual material as appropriate. (When citing concepts or lectures from our class, please do so by referencing the title of the class and the lecture date). Papers should be titled and in proper essay format that includes an introduction and conclusion.Readings:Jeffrey Jerome Cohen, Monster Culture (Seven Theses) in Monster Theory: Reading Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996, pp. 3-25
Surekha Davies, Renaissance Ethnography and the Invention of the Human, chapter 1
Katherine Park and Lorraine J. Datson, “Unnatural Conceptions: The Study of Monsters in Sixteenth-and Seventeenth-Century France and England,” Past and Present, no. 92 (Aug 1981), pp20-54.
Renaissance Ethnography and the Invention of the Human, chap. 2.
“The Diario of Christopher Columbus’s First Voyage to America 1492-1493
Renaissance Ethnography, “Civility, idolatry, and cities in Mexico and Peru,”
Notes : The place of maps in the Early modern EuropeSidebar:Epistemology:the investigation of what distinguishes justified belief from opinion.Ontology: branch of philosophy that studies concepts such as existence, being, becoming, and reality. “pre-history” of raceTeratology: the study of abnormalities of physiological development in all organisms including plants during the entire life span.Known World is constituted how?Visual Culture and Early Modern… Science What are the causes of early modern “monsters”?Humoralism and its importanceWhat are the takeaways?What does this all have to do with maps?Modern Teratology Choice. : Not follow faith, doing what’s outside of culture Extreme climate : that the body is composed of humars and the body need to be leveledErrorof Nature ; Monsters vs Monstrous people (race):Wildness, Civility, and SavageryHistory, Historiography, and Ontology How is the Western world divided by the end of the 15th Century?Treaty of Tordesillas and European Competition American epistemologies: paradise and Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula… the Holy Crusades 711-1492: What emerges after from seven centuries ?Imperial consolidation Anti-Muslimism and ant-Jewish coalitions Religious intolerance What does this look like?15th c. Iberian Society: Clergy and Nobility: 5% Commoners: 90%European CompetitionChristopher Columbus’ premise: Portugal errs in Sailing East Strabo : 1500 years earlier, I fht extent of the Atlantic The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England in 1588: the beginning of the end for Spanish and Portuguese influence England and the Netherlands then dominate the Age of Exploration Cornelium Van Houtman breaks the Portuguese monopoly, dominating the East Indies, and makes a foothold in Brazil
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